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Sexualized Violence

Rape

I. Beliefs About Rape


Women often cry rape falsely. When a woman says no to a man, he has no right to have sex with her. When a woman accepts drinks and dinner from a man, it is reasonable for him to force sex on her. When a man forces a woman he knows to have sex on a date, it should be considered rape. The legal system is biased against men in rape cases.

II. Rape Culture


In U.S. 1 sexual assault every 2.5 min 1 in 10 men is raped (sodomized) 91% of victims are F, 9% are M Among F rape victims, 61% are under age 18 99% of offenders are M. 70% of rapes are committed by someone known to the person raped. 1 in 4 F college students - rape or attempted rape 1 in 12 M students surveyed had committed acts that met the legal definition of rape or attempted rape. 1 in 4 women had been victims of rape or attempted rape. 84% knew the attacker: 57% happened on dates Only 27% of victims thought of themselves as rape victims Only 5% reported it to police 75% of men had been drinking or taking drugs 43% of college men admit that they coerced sex

III. Rape Myths & Proclivity to Rape


Bohner, Siebler, & Schmelcher (2006) Study #1: 90 Men 18-35 Recd info about other students RMA
High or low

Reported own RMAcceptance & RProclivity Others RMA & own RMA --> RP (Fig #1)

Study #1: Predictors of Rape Proclivity


Rape Proclivity .19* .49***

Info about Others RMA .46***

Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA)

Study #2: 158 Men 19-39 First reported own RMAcceptance Recd info about other students RMA Very High, High, Low, or No Info Reported own RP Increases in Others RMAcceptance --> Increases Own RP Own RMAcceptance -->Own RProclivity (Fig #2)

Study #2: Predictors of Rape Proclivity

RAPE PROCLIVITY

PERCEIVED RMA OF OTHERS

OWN RAPE MYTH ACCEPTANCE (RMA)

IV. RMA of Female & Male Intercollegiate Athletes


M
% of Women who cry rape falsely
Any healthy woman can successfully resist a rape if she really wants to. When women go around braless or wearing short skirts & tight tops, they are just asking for trouble. In the majority of rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation.

F
2.21
2.49 3.42

2.59
2.94 4.25

3.34

2.24

If a girl engages in necking or petting and she 2.88 lets things get out of hand, it is her own fault if her partner forces sex on her.

1.87

Scale from 0-5; 0 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree

V. Rapists Speak

(Scully, 1991)

Admitters:
Denied being rapists. Admitted that their behavior was rape Gave justifications.

Deniers:
Denied being rapists. Denied that their behavior was rape Gave justifications.

How Deniers Defined Their Behavior


(not rape) Women seduced him Women mean yes when they say no. Women eventually relax and enjoy it. Nice girls dont get raped. Only a minor wrong doing. Macho Man no need to rape.

VI. Rewards of Rape


(Scully & Marolla, 1993)

Revenge, Punish, Collective Liability Added Bonus Entitlement, Conquest Dominance Recreation Felt Good like I had just ridden the bull at Gilleys

What is & is not being said?


Rape tends to be an expression of anger, resentment, entitlement Not about sexual pleasure

VII. Team Rape


Neimark (2005)

Gang Rape -- military spoils of war Frat and Athlete Rape Hidden code Lack of guilt Support for each other Alcohol/Drugs

Explanations from Team Rapists Team sport experience Male Bonding - part of group experience Conquest Not really hurt Not human like other women Willing: nice-girl vs. party-girl Rules do not apply

VIII. Bate & Bowkers 4 Theoretical Approaches


A. B. C. D. Biological (Nature) Cultural (Schema, Gender as Culture) Rhetorical (Strategic) Power

IX. Prevention?
What

can women do to prevent sexual violence against women?


can men do to prevent sexual violence against women?

What

X. Recognizing Symptoms & Effects of Rape


A. Crisis or Acute Stage: Immediately after Assault May last a few days to several weeks. May return during the following years. Characteristics fear - of physical injury, mutilation and death anxiety attacks and crying spells, mood swings and depression difficulty concentrating, making simple decisions, doing normal tasks disturbances in sleeping and eating patterns feeling numb, with little emotion poor recall of the assault or other memories feelings of humiliation, guilt, shame, embarrassment, self-blame, anger, confusion, powerlessness A survivor may cry, shake or appear to be agitated and restless, or seem calm, controlled, "spacey," or laugh hysterically, as if an assault had never occurred. All are normal responses.

B. Outward Adjustment Stage: Wks - Yrs Later Attempt to put assault behind, resume normal lifestyle. Internal turmoil may continue to create: denial-attempts to block thoughts of the assault continued anxiety, helplessness withdrawal from family and friends deterioration of normal routine - not wanting to go out or be involved change in sexual behaviors, attitudes misdirected or self-directed anger depression, substance abuse, eating disorders

XI. What Can You Do to Stop a Rape?


A. Buddy or Group Watch out for others too Drink less B. Language C. Protect Self, not Relationship Assertive Comm Make self undesirable target D. RADAR?

SUGGESTIONS FROM STUDENTS


Ex: LIGHTING in I.V.

The Go Away Face

XII. Men Against Rape: Men, Do You:


Look a woman in the eye or glance at her body? Compliment women on more than their looks? Keep an open mind when a woman labels something as sexist? Refuse to take part in sexist humor? Refrain from referring to women as objects -e.g., that, thing, ho, rating systems, etc. Refer to sex using derogatory/violent terms -drilled, nailed, banged, tapped Consider the posters (e.g., Maxim) in your apt and how women feel about them. Take down if offensive.

Men Against Rape


Must Be Cool To Care: H.S. males got involved when the cool guys were already involved.

We Are Man: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYhao dUPqSU