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Jardine Jade Albert C.

Valdez, RMT

ENDOCRINOLOGY
The science of the structure and function of the endocrine glands and the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system Endo: within Crino: to secrete Logy: study of

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Adrenal gland Pineal gland

Secrete hormones Hormone: mediator molecule that is released in one part of the body but regulates activity of cells in other parts of the body

NON ENDOCRINE GLANDS


Hypothalamus Thymus Pancreas Ovaries Testes Kidneys Stomach Liver Adipose tissue Placenta

Hormones
Chemical signals produced by specialized cells secreted into the blood stream and carried to a target tissue. They play an important role in the growth and development of an organism They are regulated by the metabolic activity either positive or negative feedback mechanism

Positive feedback system an increased in the product also increases the activity of the system and the production rate Negative feedback system - an increased in the product decreases the activity of the system and the production rate

Types of hormone action


Endocrine Paracrine Autocrine Juxtacrine Exocrine Neurocrine Neuroendocrine

Classification of Hormones according to composition or structure:

Peptides and proteins

Synthesized and stored within the cells in

the form of secretory granules and are cleaved as needed

Steroids
Are lipid molecules that have cholesterol as

a common precursor Water insoluble, bound to carrier protein

Amines
They are derived from amino acid and they

are intermediary between steroid and protein hormones.

Hypothalamus
Is

the portion of the brain located in the wall and floor of the third ventricle. It is above the pituitary gland, and is connected to the posterior pituitary by the infundibulum (pituitary stalk) The link between the nervous system and the endocrine system Hypothalamic cell bodies synthesize oxytocin and ADH

Releasing

hormones regulate Anterior Pituitary Growth hormone-releasing H. Growth hormone-inhibiting H. Thyrotropin-releasing H. Corticotropin-releasing H. Gonadotropin-releasing H. Prolactin-releasing H.

Endocrine glands

PINEAL GLAND

Other name: Epiphysis Cerebri Anatomical structure: Is a small organ, weighing little more than 0.1 gram
A pinecone shaped gland.

Hormone secreted : MELATONIN


It is known as

dracula of hormone bec. of the pattern of hormone Produce/ increase during Late night

Target tissue : blood vessel, ovaries, GIT, brain Functions of melatonin:


Generates the fight or flight response Regulates mood Lowers body temperature, release stress. Regulates sexual development Regulates daily cycles in response to the amount of light in the environment.

PITUITARY GLAND
Is known as the MASTER GLAND It is located in a small cavity in the sphenoid bone of the skull called the SELLA TURCICA or TURKISH SADDLE All pituitary hormones have circadian rhythms

ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES


Hormones are larger and more complex as compared to the hormones released by the hypothalamus Hormones are either tropic or direct Tropic: actions are specific for another endocrine gland Direct: acts directly on peripheral tissue

TROPIC HORMONES
LH: directs testosterone production from Leydig cells in men and ovulation in women TSH: directs thyroid hormone production form the thyroid FSH: folliculogenesis in women and spermatogenis in men ACTH: regulates adrenal steroidogenesis

DIRECT HORMONES

GH: has direct effect on substrate metabolism in numerous tissues Prolactin

ANTERIOR PITUITARY SECRETION CONTROL

1ST neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus secretes 5 releasing hormones and 2 inhibiting hormones which suppress secretion of anterior pituitary hormones

Hormone
GH/Somatotropin TSH/Thyrotropin FSH

Secreted by
Somatotrophs Thyrotrophs Gonadotrophs

Stimulates secretion/ Releasing hormone

Suppress secretion / Inhibiting hormone

GHRH/Somatocrini GHIH/Somatostatin n Thyrotropin releasing hormone Gonadotrophic releasing hormone(GnRH) GnRH PRH GHIH ___

LH Prolactin

Gonadotrophs Lactotrophs

___ PIH

ANTERIOR PITUITARY SECRETION CONTROL

2nd negative feedback in the form of hormones releases by target glands decrease secretion of anterior pituitary cells
Anterior Pituitary Target Hormone gland LH Gonad FSH TSH Gonad Thyroid Feedback hormone Sex steroids Inhibin T3 T4

ACTH
GH Prolactin

Adrenal
Multiple Breast

Cortisol
IGF-1 __

Anterior Pituitary
Adenohypophysis Regulates the released and production of hormones such as:

Growth H. (hGH) Prolactin Melanocyte-stimulating H. (MSH) Thyroid-stimulating H. (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic H. (ACTH) Follicle-stimulating H. (FSH) Luteinizing H. (LH)

Growth hormones (GH, hGH)


The most abundant of all pituitary hormones. Is controlled by GH-RH and somatostatin The secretion is erratic and occurs in short burst Markedly elevated during sleep (deep sleep)

Its overall metabolic effect is to metabolize fat stores while conserving glucose Ref. value(fasting) <7 ng/mL

Growth hormone
Lack of hGH retards growth Charles Stratton,
1838-1883, adopted & trained by P.T. Barnum. General Tom Thumb ~ 33 in. (84 cm) tall Married Lavinia Warren, 1863. Died of CV disease.

Growth hormone Over secretion in youth produces giantism Over secretion in adult produces acromegaly

GONADOTROPINS

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Leutenizing Hormones (LH)


Fertility and menstrual cycle disorder FSH aids in spermatogenesis (male)

LH helps leydig cells to produce

testosterone (male) and for female, it is necessary for ovulation and the final follicular growth

THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)


Also known as thyrotropin Stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis It is main stimulus for the uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland It acts to increase the number and size of follicular cells; stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis Blood level may contribute in the evaluation of infertility

ADRENOCORTICOCOTROPHI C HORMONE (ACTH)


Produce in response to low serum cortisol; regulator of adrenal androgen synthesis. Highest level is between 6-8 am; lowest level is between 6-11 pm Increased level: Addisons disease, ectopic tumors, after protein-rich meals.

PROLACTIN (PRL)

Prolactin is structurally related to GH and human placental lactogen. Its amino acid sequence is similar to that of growth hormone (GH) and placenta lactogen (PL) sharing genomic, structural and biological features and belonging to the same PRL/GH/PL protein family.

A product of the anterior pituitary Prolactin (PRL) is mainly synthesized and secreted by the lactotropes cells of the pituitary Considered a stress hormone It has vital functions in relationship to reproduction.

Prolactin is classified as a direct effector hormone because it has diffuse target tissue and lacks a single endocrine end organ Dopamine is the neuroendocrine signal that inhibits prolactin and is now considered to be the elusive Prolactin inhibitory factor (PIF) It is also regulated by several hormones, including gonadotropin releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.

Any compound that affects dopaminergic activity in the median eminence of the hypothalamus will also alter prolactin secretion. Stimulation of breasts, as in nursing, causes the release of prolactin secreting hormones from the hypothalamus. The physiologic effect of prolactin is lactation.

HYPERPROLACTINEMIA

Modest elevations in prolactin (25100 ng/mL) may be seen with pituitary stalk interruption, use of dopaminergic antagonist medications, or other medical conditions such as primary thyroidal failure, renal failure, or polycystic ovary syndrome.

Any disruption of the pituitary stalk (e.g., tumors, trauma, or inflammation) causes an elevation in prolactin as a result of interruption of the flow of dopamine from the hypothalamus to the lactotropes. Estrogens also directly stimulate lactotropes to synthesize prolactin.

Significant hyperprolactinemia is also encountered during pregnancy. May also be seen in renal failure and polycystic ovary syndrome The usual consequence of prolactin excess is hypogonadism, either by suppression of gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary or by inhibition of gonadotropin action at the gonad.

PROLACTINOMA
A prolactinoma is a pituitary tumor that directly secretes prolactin Substantial elevations in prolactin (150 ng/mL) indicate prolactinoma, and the degree of elevation in prolactin is correlated with tumor size. Premenopausal women most frequently complain of menstrual irregularity/amenorrhea, infertility

Idiopathic Galactorrhea
Lactation occurring in women with normal prolactin levels is defined as idiopathic galactorrhea. This condition is usually seen in women who have been pregnant several times and has no pathologic implication.

HYPOPITUITARISM
The failure of either the pituitary or hypothalamus results in the loss of anterior pituitary function. Complete loss of function is termed panhypopituitarism Panhypopituitarism can result from radiotherapy used to treat a primary pituitary tumor or a pituitary that was inadvertently included in the radiation port; loss of function, however, may be gradual and may occur over several years

Pituitary tumors may cause panhypopituitarism by compressing or replacing normal tissue or interrupting the flow of hypothalamic hormones by destroying the pituitary stalk. Parasellar tumors (meningiomas and gliomas), metastatic tumors (breast and lung), and hypothalamic tumors (craniopharyngiomas or dysgerminomas) can also cause hypopituitarism

monotropic hormone deficiency. The loss of a tropic hormone (ACTH, TSH, LH, and FSH) is reflected in function cessation of the affected endocrine gland primary failure of an endocrine gland that is accompanied by dramatic increases in circulating levels of the corresponding pituitary tropic hormone

secondary failure (hypopituitarism) is associated with low or normal levels of tropic hormone. In primary hypothyroidism, for example, the circulating levels of thyroxine are low and TSH levels may exceed 200 U/mL (normal, 0.45.0). As a result of pituitary failure in hypothyroidism, TSH levels are inappropriately low and typically less than 1.0 U/mL.

POSTERIOR PITUITARY
Neurohypophysis - CNS Capable of releasing the hormones oxytoxin and vasopressin but not capable of producing it. The hormones released by neurohypophysis are synthesized in the supraoptic (ADH) and paraventricular nuclei (oxytoxin) of the hypotalamus.

Oxytocin
Stimulates smooth muscle contraction of

uterus & mammary glands.

Antidiuretic H.
Stimulates water reabsorption in collecting

ducts. Stimulates vasoconstriction (vasopressin) Lack diabetes insipidus

THYMUS GLAND

Anatomical structure: PINKISH GRAY COLOR


Pyramidal shape with two lobes connected

by areolar tissue It resembles the leaves of herbal plants classified under the genus of thymus or thyme Increase in size until it reaches its max during puberty then progressively atrophies with age.

Average size:
Birth : 15 grams
Puberty :30-50 grams produce more T

cells Age 65 : 5-15 grams

Location: located in the upper thorax behind the sternum, but below the thyroid gland.

Function of thymus gland : processing and maturation of special lymphocytes called T cells --- immunity Hormone secreted : Thymosin Function of Thymosin: promote the maturation of lymphocyte within the gland.
Promote the growth and activity of lymphocytes

throughout the body.

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