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Basic Protection Philosophy

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Protection - Why Is It Needed?


All Power Systems may experience faults at some time.
PROTECTION IS INSTALLED TO : Detect fault occurrence and isolate the faulted equipment. SO THAT : Damage to the faulted equipment is limited; Disruption of supplies to adjacent unfaulted equipment is minimised.

PROTECTION IS EFFECTIVELY AN INSURANCE POLICY - AN INVESTMENT AGAINST DAMAGE FROM FUTURE FAULTS.
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Protection - Why Is It Needed?


FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEMS RISK : Severe damage to the faulted equipment : Excessive current may flow; Causes burning of conductors or equipment windings; Arcing - energy dissipation; Risk of explosions for oil - filled switchgear, or when in hazardous environments.

Damage to adjacent plant : As the fault evolves, if not cleared quickly; Due to the voltage depression / loss of supply.
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Protection - Why Is It Needed?


FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEMS RISK :
Danger to staff or the public : Risk of shock from direct contact with the faulted equipment; Danger of potential (voltage) rises in exposed metalwork accessible to touch; Fumes released by burning insulation; Burns etc. Disruption to adjacent plant : Prolonged voltage dips cause motors to stall; Loss of synchronism for synchronous generators / motors.
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Protection - Why Is It Needed?

SUMMARY : Protection must : Detect faults and abnormal operating conditions; Isolate the faulted equipment. So as to : Limit damage caused by fault energy; Limit effect on rest of system.

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection


Types of fault and abnormal conditions to be protected against Quantities available for measurement Types of protection available Speed Fault position discrimination Dependability / Reliability Security / Stability Overlap of protections Phase discrimination / Selectivity CTs and VTs Auxiliary supplies Back-up protection Cost Duplication of protection

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Faults Are Mainly Caused By Insulation Failure

Underground Cables

Diggers
Overloading Oil Leakage Ageing

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Faults Are Mainly Caused By Insulation Failure

Overhead Lines Lightning Kites Trees Moisture Salt Birds Broken Conductors

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Faults Are Mainly Caused By Insulation Failure

Machines Mechanical Damage

Unbalanced Load

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Fault
/E a b c e a b c e a b c

//E

a b c

3/E

a b c e

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Fault

a CROSS COUNTRY FAULT

a' b' c' e

b
c e

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Fault
a OPEN CIRCUIT + /E b c e

FAULT BETWEEN ADJACENT PARALLEL LINES

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Fault

a CHANGING FAULT IN CABLE b

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types Of Protection

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Protection
Fuses For : LV Systems, Distribution Feeders and Transformers, VTs, Auxiliary Supplies Direct Acting AC Trip For : LV Systems, Pole Mounted Reclosers Overcurrent and Earthfault Widely used in all Power Systems Non-Directional Voltage Dependant Directional

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Protection

Differential For : Feeders, Busbars, Transformers, Generators, etc. High Impedance Restricted E/F Biased (or low-impedance) Pilot Wire Digital

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Protection

Distance For : Distribution Feeders and Transmission and Sub-Transmission Circuits Also used as Back-up Protection for Transformers and Generators Phase Comparison For : Transmission Lines Directional Comparison For : Transmission Lines

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Types of Protection
Miscellaneous Under and Over Voltage Under and Over Frequency Special Relays for Generators, Transformers, Motors, etc. Control Relays Auto-Reclose, Tap Change Control, etc.

Tripping and Auxiliary Relays

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Overcurrent Protection Direct Acting AC Trip

51

Trip Coil IF

AC series trip common for electromechanical O/C relays


> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Overcurrent Protection DC Shunt Trip


IF I F'

51

DC BATTERY

SHUNT TRIP COIL

Requires secure DC auxiliary No trip if DC fails


> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Overcurrent Protection Co-ordination Principle

R1

R2

IF1
T

IS2 IS1

Maximum Fault Level

Relay closest to fault must operate first Other relays must have adequate additional operating time to prevent them operating Current setting chosen to allow FLC Consider worst case conditions, operating modes and current flows

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Differential Protection Principle (1)

Protected Circuit

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Differential Protection Principle (2)

Protected Circuit

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection

ZS

Relay PT.

IR

ZL

VS

VR

ZLOAD

Normal Load

Impedance measured

ZR

VR Z L Z LOAD R

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection


ZL ZS IR

ZF

VS

VR

ZLOAD

Fault

Impedance Measured ZR = VR/IR = ZF Relay Operates if ZF < Z where Z = setting Increasing VR has a Restraining Effect VR called Restraining Voltage Increasing IR has an Operating Effect
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Plain Impedance Characteristic

jX

ZL

Impedance Seen At Measuring Location For Line Faults

R TRIP STABLE

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Impedance Characteristic Generation

IF

zF

jI X IZ V2 V1

VF

V3 IR
Trip

TRIP

STABLE

Spring

Restrain

Operate VF IZ

Voltage to Relay = V Current to Relay = I Replica Impedance = Z Trip Condition : where : S1 = IZ Z S2 = V ZF S2 < S1

Ampere Turns :

Trip Conditions : VF < IFZ

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Buchholz Relay Installation


3 x internal pipe diameter (minimum) Conservator

5 x internal pipe diameter (minimum)

Oil conservator
3 minimum Transformer

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Autoreclose Benefits (1)


Improved continuity of supply Supply restoration is automatic (does not require human intervention) Shorter duration interruptions Less consumer hours lost Use of instantaneous protection for faster fault clearance (NB: some healthy circuits may also be tripped) Less damage Less pre-heating of circuit breaker contacts (reduced maintenance?) Less chance of transient fault becoming permanent

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Autoreclose Benefits (2)


Less frequent visits to substations
More unmanned substations Reduced operating costs

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Definitions & Considerations

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Classes of Protection
Non-Unit, or Unrestricted Protection : No specific point downstream up to which protection will protect Will operate for faults on the protected equipment; May also operate for faults on downstream equipment, which has its own protection; Need for discrimination with downstream protection, usually by means of time grading.

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Classes of Protection

Unit, or Restricted Protection : Has an accurately defined zone of protection An item of power system plant is protected as a unit; Will not operate for out of zone faults, thus no back-up protection for downstream faults.

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Co-ordination

LOAD SOURCE LOAD

LOAD

F1

LOAD

F2

F3

Co-ordinate protection so that relay nearest to fault operates first minimises amount of system disconnection.

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

ANSI Reference Numbers

2 21 25 27 30 32 37 40 46 49 50 79 81 85 86

Time Delay Distance Synchronising Check Undervoltage Annunciator Directional Power Undercurrent or Under Power Field Failure Negative Sequence Thermal Instantaneous Overcurrent Auto-Reclose Frequency Signal Receive Lock-Out

51 51N 52 52a 52b 59 60 64 67 67N 74 85 86 87

Time Delayed Overcurrent Time Delayed Earthfault Circuit Breaker Auxiliary Switch - Normally Open Auxiliary Switch - Normally Closed Overvoltage Voltage or Current Balance Instantaneous Earth Fault (High Impedance) Directional Overcurrent Directional Earthfault Alarm Signal Receive Lock-Out Differential

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection

Speed Fast operation : Minimises damage and danger Very fast operation : Minimises system instability Discrimination and security can be costly to achieve as it generally involves additional signaling / communications equipment.

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection

Fault Position Discrimination Power system divided into PROTECTED ZONES Must isolate only the faulty equipment or section

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Zones of Protection
TRANSF- BUSBAR ORMER ZONE ZONE FEEDER ZONE GENERATION ZONE

BUSBAR ZONE

BUSBAR ZONE

FEEDER ZONE

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection

Overlap of Protections No blind spots Where possible use overlapping CTs

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Protection Overlap

BBP 1

BBP 2

J Z

LP H

LP J

LP K

LP L

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection

Dependability / Reliability Protection must operate when required to Failure to operate can be extremely damaging and disruptive Faults are rare. Protection must operate even after years of inactivity Improved by use of: duplicate protection Back-up protection and

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection

Security / Stability Protection must not operate when not required to, e.g. due to : Load switching Faults on other parts of the system Recoverable power swings

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection

Phase Discrimination Correct indication of phases involved in the fault

Important for single phase tripping and autoreclosing applications

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Cost

The cost of protection is equivalent to an insurance policy against damage to plant, and loss of supply and customer goodwill. Acceptable cost is based on a balance of economics and technical factors. Cost of protection should be balanced against the cost of potential hazards. There is an economic limit on what can be spent. MINIMUM COST : Must ensure that all faulty equipment is isolated by protection.
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Cost

TOTAL COST should take account of : Relays, schemes and associated panels and panel wiring Setting studies Commissioning CTs and VTs Maintenance and repairs to relays Damage repair if protection fails to operate Lost revenue if protection operates unnecessarily

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Cost
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Large numbers of switching and distribution points, transformers and feeders Economics often overrides technical issues Protection may be the minimum consistent with statutory safety regulations Speed less important than on transmission systems Back-up protection can be simple and is often inherent in the main protection Although important, the consequences of maloperation or failure to operate is less serious than for transmission systems
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Cost
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS Emphasis is on technical considerations rather than economics Economics cannot be ignored but is of secondary importance compared with the need for highly reliable, fully discriminative high speed protection Higher protection costs justifiable by high capital cost of power system elements protected Risk of security of supply should be reduced to lowest practical levels High speed protection requires unit protection Duplicate protections used to improve reliability Single phase tripping and auto-reclose may be required to maintain system stability
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Important Considerations When Applying Protection


Current and Voltage Transformers
These are an essential part of the protection scheme to reduce primary current and volts to a low level suitable to input to relay. They must be suitably specified to meet the requirements of the protective relays. Correct connection of CTs and VTs to the protection is important. In particular for directional, distance, phase comparison and differential protections. VTs may be electromagnetic or capacitor types. Busbar VTs : Special consideration needed when used for line protection.
> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Current Transformer Circuits

Never open circuit a CT secondary circuit, so : Never fuse CT circuits; VTs must be fused or protected by MCB. Do wire test blocks in circuit (both VT and CT) to allow commissioning and periodic injection testing of relays. Earth CT and VT circuits at one point only; Wire gauge > 2.5mm2 recommended for mechanical strength.

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Auxiliary Supplies
Required for : TRIPPING CIRCUIT BREAKERS CLOSING CIRCUIT BREAKERS PROTECTION and TRIP RELAYS
AC AUXILIARY SUPPLIES are only used on LV and MV systems. DC AUXILIARY SUPPLIES are more secure than AC supplies. SEPARATELY FUSED SUPPLIES used for each protection. DUPLICATE BATTERIES are occasionally provided for extra security. MODERN PROTECTION RELAYS need a continuous auxiliary supply. During unoperated (healthy) conditions, they draw a small QUIESCENT load to keep relay circuits energised. During operation, they draw a larger current which increases due to operation of output elements.

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004

Relay Outputs
TRIP OUTPUT CONTACTS : Check that these are rated sufficiently to make and carry the circuit breaker trip coil current. If not, a heavier duty tripping relay will be needed. Use a circuit breaker normally open (52a) contact to interrupt trip coil current. This extends the life of the protection relay trip contacts. TYPE OF CONTACTS :
Make (M) / Normally Open (NO) Break (B) / Normally Closed (NC) Changeover (C/O) Close when energised, typically used for tripping. Close when de-energised.

Can be break before make (BBM) or make before break (MBB).

> Basic Protection Philosophy - January 2004