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Automatic Transmission Fundamentals

Chapter 73

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Objectives
Identify the basic parts of an automatic transmission Describe the operation of the major sections of an automatic transmission Explain how automatic transmissions shift gears Understand how an electronic automatic transmission works

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Introduction
Automatic transmission
Shifts gears automatically Does not require a manual clutch

Front-wheel-drive vehicles
Combine transmission with differential in transaxle

Most automatic transmissions use a torque converter


Some use a dual clutch arrangement

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Automatic Transmission Parts and Power Transmission


Automatic transmission consists of several parts
Torque converter, input shaft, transmission pump, valve body, planetary holding members, etc.

Methods of transmitting power


Fluid, friction, and gears Torque converter transmits power using fluid Planetary holding members use fluid and friction Gears transmit power and change speed and torque
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Flexplate and Torque Converter


Flexplate and torque converter
Replace the flywheel Flexplate is fastened to crankshaft

Torque converter
Allows vehicle to idle at a stop sign Slips during initial acceleration to prevent stalling Fluid coupling: compared to two fans
First fan (impeller): turns faster Second fan (turbine): picks up energy and turns Pump produces fluid flow to develop pressure
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Torque Multiplication and Torque Converter Operation


Torque converter
Increases torque Torque is multiplied whenever the impeller spins faster than the turbine

Operation
Impeller rotates at idle speed: fluid is thrown from impeller toward turbine
Centrifugal force of rotating torque converter also throws fluid to outside of housing

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Torque Converter Stator and Operation


Torque converter stator
Makes torque increase possible Stator between impeller and turbine
Redirects fluid flow

Split half-rings in centers of turbine and impeller blades


Direct fluid in a smooth pattern
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Stator Clutch Operation


Stator clutch
Locks in one direction and freewheels in other
Fluid strikes stator at a high angle: clutch locks Speed of turbine catches speed of impeller: stator clutch freewheels

Converter
Becomes efficient at power transfer when engine reaches 2300 rpm Turbine speed is 9/10 of impeller: no torque multiplication
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Stall speed

Stall Speed and Lock-Up Converters


Lower stall speed converters: more efficient

Point of maximum torque multiplication

Lock-up converter
Pressure plate behind turbine locks it to back of converter housing
Provides mechanical link between crankshaft and transmission input shaft

Fluid is directed to one side of pressure plate and is exhausted from the other
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Planetary gears

Planetary Gears and Simple Planetary Gearset

Change gear ratios by holding and turning different members All gears are in constant mesh Load is distributed over several gears

Simple planetary gearset


Has sun gear, planetary pinions, carrier, and a ring gear Several types: compound, Simpson, Ravigneaux, and tandem
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Simple Planetary Operation


Basic gear rules
Two gears with external teeth in mesh rotate in opposite directions
Two gears in mesh, one with internal and one with external teeth, rotate in same direction

Forward gear reduction


Turn sun gear while holding ring gear Holding sun gear while turning ring gear

Reverse
Use only the rear gearset
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Compound Planetary Operation (Simpson)


Double reverse: Simpson geartrain low-gear operation
Results in forward operation

Ravigneaux operation: two sun gears, two sets of pinions, and a ring gear
Large and small sun gears Six planetary pinions: three long and three short

Lepelletier geartrain
Combines different planetary arrangements
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Driving and Holding Devices and Clutches


Planetary gearset
One member held and another is driven

Fluid clutch
Holds rotating member to input shaft Bands and clutches operate when fluid pressure applied

Multiple disc clutches


Used for holding or driving Steels: held against one element of clutch pack
Friction discs are splined to corresponding part
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Clutch Operation
Hydraulic pressure not directed at the clutch: clutch releases
Friction discs and steels turn independently

Driving clutch engaged: fluid directed into clutch drum


Fluid pressure is applied to large piston on inside of drum Piston is applied against discs to compress springs and lock clutch through pressure plate Pressure is released: piston is pushed away
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

One-Way Clutches
Characteristics
Holds part of planetary gearset from turning Commonly used in drive low gear Have inner and outer race and a set of springs and rollers Sprag clutch: different-shaped locking device between inner and outer races Mechanical diode: used in some torque converters and transmissions

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Bands and Accumulator


Steel straps with friction lining on inside
Single or double wrap
Double wrap bands are used for low and reverse

Servo operates a band


Fluid pressure is directed into the servos cylinder to apply the band

During shifts: some parts held and others driven


Shuddering or damage result if two components applied at same time
Accumulator has piston and reservoir that must fill before pressure applied to driving device
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Hydraulic System and Fluid Pump


Hydraulic system
Makes fluid pressure that transmits power through the torque converter

Fluid pump does several things


Creates hydraulic pressure Lubricates transmission parts Fills torque converter Circulates fluid throughout transmission Pressure operates valves
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Types of Pumps
Three types
Rotor type Internal/external gear crescent type Vane type

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Transmission Valves and Pressure Regulator


Spool valves
Lands and valleys control fluid flow

Valves can be moved


Done by spring, lever or rod, or hydraulic pressure

Pressure regulator valve


Determines pressure in the system

Orifice restricts fluid flow


Also reduces pressure of moving fluid

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Hydraulic Valve Body


Valve body
Senses engine load and adjusts shift points and fluid pressure Usually bolted to bottom of transmission inside of the pan Spacer plate fits between transmission and valve body Manual control valve is attached to shift lever Shift quadrant tells the gear the transmission is in Shift order always PRNDL or PRNDD2L
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Transmission Automatic Shift Selection


Transmission selects correct gear range based on engine load and vehicle speed
Upshift: transmission shifts to higher gear Downshift: transmission shifts to lower gear

Throttle pressure
Results when engine vacuum changes

Governor pressure
Results from increase in vehicle speed

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Governor and Vacuum Modulator


Governor
Located on output shaft Variable-pressure relief valve Pressure is no greater than line pressure

Vacuum modulator valve


Controls throttle pressure Has diaphragm and hose fitting attached to vacuum source at intake manifold

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Kickdown Valve
Either manually operated by cable or electrically operated solenoid
Causes throttle pressure to go to highest point Spring loaded: extends from the valve body side
Contacts lever that applies it from outside the transmission

Bushings are made of bronze alloy or steel with soft bearing surface
Thrust washers control end play Snap rings maintain part position on a shaft
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Automatic Transmission Fluid and Automatic Transmission Cooling


ATF is oil
Specially formulated for automatic transmissions

Cooling
Transmission develops heat during operation Heat damages transmission fluid Most transmissions have a fluid cooler

Results of radiator heat exchanger leaks:


Engine running: ATF migrates into radiator Engine off: coolant migrates into transmission
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Auxiliary Cooler/Heat Exchanger and Park Pawl


Auxiliary cooler/heat exchanger
Added to motor homes and vehicles that pull trailers
Resembles small radiator Hooked into cooler line in series Installed before the radiator cooler

Park pawl
Lever that locks transmission output shaft when shift lever is in park

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Electronic Automatic Transmissions and Operation


Shifts controlled by computer using engine load, vehicle speed, and other inputs
More precise control
Less expensive solenoids

Electronic transmission shifting


Driver shifts gears without assistance of a clutch
Manually overriding the computer

Computer decides shift points based on power output from the engine
Adaptive learning
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Electronic Torque Converter Control


Torque converter clutch
Computer controlled Comes on after engine is warm Typical speed required for lockup is about 40 mph Engages if brake switch closed and throttle position sensor signal does not show a closed throttle

2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Electronic Pressure Control


Electronic pressure control (EPC) types
On/off variable force solenoids Pulse width modulated

Variable force solenoids


Electronic modulators

Pulse width modulation slides back and forth


Opening or closing a passage

Different types of solenoids are used


Depends on application
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Transmission Shift Control


Electronic shift control
Line pressure only No governor or modulator pressure Forward gears are controlled by computer Reverse only works when solenoids are off

Honda/Acura and Saturn use multiple-disc hydraulic clutches and shift solenoids
Gearing similar to manual transmission

Dual clutch transmissions (DCTs)


Being used by several manufacturers
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Continuously Variable Transmission


Characteristics
Similar operation to variable-speed drill press Infinite driving ratios Increases fuel economy in the range of 25%
Engine can be run with constant rpm Engine does not accelerate through each gear

Do not handle torque as well Torque travels between steel cones and a steel chain
Special lubricant changes phase to a gassy solid
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning

Hybrid Planetary Transmission Operation


Hybrid planetary transaxle
Three inputs and one output

Toyota hybrid system


Two motor/generators

Hybrid motor/generators
Operate as motors when powering vehicle Generate electricity to recharge battery pack

Some use a third electric motor on rear axle


Double regenerative braking
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning