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Anatomy & Physiology Cont

The female is born with about 2 million OOCYTES ( ) ____________ halted at Prophase I, only 400 of which will mature into _______within her OVA 14 lifetime. On about the _________ day of the menstrual cycle, the ovum is released from a FOLLICLE ___________ on the surface of the FIMBRIAE OVARY ____________ at ovulation. ____________ move it into the ___________. FALLOPIAN TUBES.
immature eggs TH

Anatomy & Physiology Cont

Sperm are deposited in the ______ VAGINA which leads UTERUS They must make their to the mouth of the _____. CERVIX way through the _______, the muscular sphincter at the opening of the uterus, and up the Fallopian tube to fertilize the ovum within about 24 hours or the ovum will die. Peristaltic contractions move the ovum or zygote to the _______ in UTERUS about 3 days. If the ovum is not fertilized or MENSTRUATION will occur on day 28. implanted, ____________

Anatomy & Physiology Cont

In any egg cell, the sex chromosome is a(an) X ____ chromosome. In a sperm cell, the sex Y chromosome is either a(an) ___ or a(an) ___ X chromosome. If a sperm with an X chromosome fertilized the egg, the sex chromosome pattern of the fertilized egg is _____ and the offspring will be a ________. If XX GIRL a sperm with a Y chromosome fertilizes the egg, the sex chromosome pattern of the XY fertilized egg is ___ and the offspring will be a BOY ________.

Anatomy & Physiology



Anatomy & Physiology Cont



External Anatomy

All of the external organs of the (F.R.S.)

Rounded, fatty pad of tissue Covered in pubic hair after puberty begins Front of body, on top of pubic bone (protection)

Rich in nerve endings and blood vessels (similar) Protects internal organs against pathogens Functions in sexual arousal Labia Majora
OUTER fold of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening Covered in pubic hair after puberty begins

Labia Minora
INNER fold of tissue, just inside the majora Extends forward covering the clitoris

Vaginal Opening
Located just inside the vaginal opening Thin tissue stretching across the opening No known function; not always present
Some females may be born w/o; usually has several holes Allows passage of menstrual flow

1ST time w/intercourse female may experience pain & bleeding, NOT ALWAYS true with all females! Tissue is very flexible & may stay intact during intercourse!
b/c it has openings, sperm released at the vaginal opening can swim into vagina and up to the ovum Can get pregnant & still have hymen intact!

Small knob of tissue above & in front of vaginal opening Rich supply of nerve endings & blood vessels Important in sexual arousal
Similar in sensitivity & # of nerve endings to head of penis


Vagina = birth canal

Elastic tube-like pathway 4-5 long At rest, walls of vagina touch
During arousal, they expand to allow penis to enter If not ready/aroused, walls of vagina will tear


Capable of stretching to allow birth

Leads to CERVIX


- neck of the uterus

- Opening is small, dilates (opens) to allow passage of baby.

Strong elastic muscle; about the size of a fist Primary fxn hold & nourish developing embryo & fetus Endometrium
Inner lining of uterus Rich supply of blood vessels
Builds up w/blood tissue to prepare for a possible pregnancy


The parts on the inside are:

Uterus Sometimes called the womb. Muscular organ about the size of a pear. Where developing baby, called a fetus, grows and is fed. Where the period comes from. Cervix The lower part of the uterus. Makes mucus to keep sperm alive. Has opening where sperm enter uterus and where the baby comes out of the uterus.

Vagina Warm, soft, moist passageway joining outside and uterus.

Fallopian Tubes
Tubes on each side of the uterus Leads to ovaries Extremely narrow; lined with cilia (similar?)
Finger-like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes Surrounds the top part of each ovary Gathers ovum into tube Fertilization usually occurs in the widest part of the fallopian tube (upper 1/3) near the ovaries



OVARIES Female sex glands/organs Situated on both sides of the uterus; end of fallopian tubes 2 main functions
House ova Produce female sex hormones
Estrogen & Progesterone


The parts on the inside are:

Fallopian tubes Narrow tubes between the uterus and the ovary.

Ovaries Glands that make egg cells and female sex hormones.

Process of releasing one mature ovum each month into that ovarys fallopian tube 2-300,000 immature ova in ovaries at birth Hormones from pituitary cause ovaries to begin producing female sex hormones Ova begin to mature Ovum can live about 2 days in fallopian tube One sperm will enter ovum = fertilization/conception


Each month, uterus prepares for possible pregnancy

Hormones cause thickening of endometrium If ovum is fertilized, it moves into the uterus and may burrow into this lining Will divide millions of times over 9-10 months

Menstrual Period
If the ovum is not fertilized it doesnt attach to the uterine lining/endometrium Muscles of the uterus contract lining breaks down (cramps) Lining passes through the cervix into the vagina and out of the vaginal opening

Process of shedding the lining of the uterus Usually lasts 4-7 days (may be shorter or longer depending on the
females individual cycle)

Regulated by hormones 2-3 tablespoons of blood Rest of flow is other tissue that makes up the endometrium
Blood and tissue are not needed, person should not be weak or ill from loss After period (menses), cycle begins again.

Menstruation cont
Most females begin menstruation between 10-15 As with males, many hormonal changes are occurring, so the body may take a couple of years to adjust Cycle may be irregular

Ceasing of menstruation Between 45-50

Hormones control the cycle

Nutrition, stress & diet can influence cycle

Menstrual Health Care

Should not be an odor from vagina at any time Menstrual flow should not have an odor until it mixes with air Products
Absorb menstrual flow Sanitary napkin/panty shield
Worn outside the body Should be changed every 3-4 hours, depending on the heaviness of flow

Worn inside the body/vagina Must be changed frequently to avoid risk of infection


Structural & Hormonal Changes

Days 1-5 Uterus sheds the endometrium Gonadotropin & ovarian hormones are at their lowest normal levels
Gonadotropin hormones = FSH & LH Ovarian hormones = estrogen & progesterone

Start producing more estrogen

Days 6-14 Changes are stimulated by estrogen levels Endometrium rebuilds itself
Rising levels of estrogen cause the endometrium to make a new layer Layer becomes thick & well supplied with blood

Proliferative phase cont

Cervical mucus is normally thick & sticky
estrogen = thin cervical mucous (lets sperm through!!!!!!)

Occurs at the end of this stage Usually around day 14 (theoretically) Sudden release of LH!

Days 15-28 Endometrium prepares for implantation of embryo
Embryo = fertilized egg

progesterone = thicker cervical mucous

Secretory phase cont

IF NOT FERTILIZED!!! Endometrial cells begin to die As the blood vessels die, they constrict and then open wide, causing blood to gush out, causing the functional layer of the endometrium to slough off MENSTRUAL CYCLE STARTS ALL OVER AGAIN



Variety of symptoms that some females experience Occurs before the menstrual period 2 weeks couple days before period Some females never experience PMS Symptoms Nervous tension, anxiety, irritability, Bloating, weight gain, depression/mood swings, fatigue

PMS cont
Causes arent completely understood
More common in 30s women Related to hormone imbalance Nutritional deficiency

Change in diet & exercise Serious cases = antidepressant meds

Aka menstrual cramps
Painful contractions in the uterus Usually mild lasting several hours More painful cramping lasting 1-2 days is normal Treatment * Light exercise * OTC pain reliever can help (except aspirin!) * Warm bath/heating pad may relax muscles * Severe or persistent cramping may be an indication that medical attention is necessary*

Lack of menstruation by age 16 or stopping of menstrual cycle in a female who previously menstruated Cause
Physical defects in sex organs Diseases
Diabetes Tumors Infections Lack of maturation of the endocrine system

Excessive athletic activities Emotional distress Eating disorders/starvation

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

Rare disease caused by common pathogen
Staphylococcus aureus Commonly found on skin, in mouth, and in vagina Under certain conditions, bacterium can produce a poison/toxin that affects the immune system and liver

High fever -- Vomiting -- Diarrhea --Dizziness Low blood pressure Fainting Rash resembling a sunburn

TSS Cont
Can result in liver and kidney damage In 5% of cases = DEATH! Treatment
Antibiotics Fluids & supportive therapy

More than of all cases occur in women

Traced to the use of super-absorbent tampons They absorb Mg & provide 02-rich environment Enables bacterium to easily produce its toxins

Also been diagnosed in men & children

Common term for vaginal infections Will affect most females at some point

3 common types
Yeast infection Nonspecific vaginitis trichomoniasis

Vaginitis Types
YEAST INFECTION Caused by a fungus White odorous discharge Genital itching NONSPECIFIC VAGINITIS Caused by bacteria Itching Odorless discharge Burning sensation during urination

TRICHOMONIASIS Caused by a protozoan Often occurs at the end of the menstrual period Odorous discharge Genital itching Occasionally burning sensation during urination

Vaginitis Treatment
* Contact doctor for proper diagnosis !* Yeast Infection
Yeast-killing cream Suppository medication, placed in the vagina

Trich & NSV

Antibiotic prescribed by Doctor

mostly the result of imbalance of organisms normally present in the vagina Some can also be the result of sexual contact with an infected person

Inability to reproduce Causes
Blocking of 1 or both fallopian tubes
Ova cannot pass into the uterus

Female does not ovulate Endometriosis

Endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus in other areas of the pelvic cavity Surgery can sometimes correct this problem!

Untreated STDs
Untreated Chlamydia & gonorrhea are the most common STDs that cause sterility

Most common form of cancer in females 2ND leading cause of death in females (1ST = lung cancer) Prevention
Maintain ideal weight for height Eat foods high in Vitamin A & C

Most treatable & curable when detected early Limited & less disfiguring if detected when in a small area of the breast

Breast Cancer Cont

Change in breast or nipple appearance Lump or swelling in breast Lump under the armpit

90% of all breast lumps in females are discovered by the females themselves!
Most are benign (harmless)

Pap Smear
Test done by Doctors to detect abnormal cells Uses along instrument to gather cells from cervix Lab techs examine the cells for cancer/precancerous cells Female should have a pap smear every year from age 18 (earlier if shes sexually active!)

If not detected early, cancer cells spread more deeply into the cervix & its surrounding areas

Cervical Cancer Cont

No Early Symptoms Risk Factors
Age 20-30 Never having a pap smear Sexual intercourse at an early age Multiple sex partners

Can be treated with surgery to remove part or all of the cervix and other affected areas Radiation or chemotherapy

2 types
Lining of the ovary Cells that make eggs
germ cell tumor of the ovary Usually occur in teen girls or young women RARE

Ovarian Cancer Cont

Vague gastrointestinal discomfort Pelvic pressure pain

Deepened voice Unusual hair growth Unexplained weight loss Enlarged, hard and sometimes tender mass in lower abdomen Painful interourse Anemia By this time the disease is quite advanced


Common hygiene methods are important Vagina is self-cleaning

Cells in the lining of the vagina are constantly being shed Forms a slight vaginal discharge (NORMAL!)

Douches & feminine hygiene sprays are not necessary

May cause irritation Disrupt females natural cleansing method

Breast Self-Exam (BSE)

Important to be performed every month
Best time = week after period

Annual mammograms are recommended for women 40+

Type of X-ray Shows image of soft tissue in the breast Tumors show up on x-ray
Different kind of tissue Show up as white on x-ray film

Pelvic Examination
Female should have yearly pelvic exams
When she starts having sexual intercourse When she turns 18

General physical exam (BP, heart & lungs) May have blood/urine test Will check external genital area Digital exam of vagina & tissues

Tool used to hold the walls of the vagina open so the physician can see the tissue inside Should not be painful!

Pap Smear usually completes the pelvic exam