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Regasification units:

Regasification units:
Traditionally, base load regasification terminals have used two types of vaporizers:
70% uses the Open rack Vaporizer (ORV), 25% uses the Submerged Combustion Vaporizer (SCV) 5% uses the Intermediate Fluid vaporizer (IFV). In addition to these vaporizers, other types of vaporizers such as The direct air vaporizers, the Ambient Air Vaporizers (AAV), have been used in smaller regasification plants and peak shaving facilities.

Selection of vaporizers:
Depends on ambient temperatures of that region: The following countries fall under the equatorial region definition: Asian Countries (Southern India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines) North American Countries (Mexico) South American Countries (Brazil) Whereas following countries may fall under the subequatorial definition: Asian Countries (China, Vietnam, Mid-West and Mid-East of India) South American Countries (Chile, Argentina) European Countries (Spain, UK, France )

LNG vaporizer selection process are:

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Site conditions and plant location Availability and reliability of the heat source Customer demand fluctuation Emission permit limits Regulatory restrictions with respect to the use of seawater Vaporizer capacity and operating parameters Safety in design Operating flexibility and reliability Capital and the operating cost

Open rack vaporizer

Widely used in Japan,Korea,Europe. Uses sea water to heat Chlorination of sea water with sodium hypo chlorite Sea water temperature is above 5c Units made of: o Aluminum alloy o Zinc alloy

Submerged Combustion Vaporizers (SCV)

Fuel heating:
LNG vaporization using fuel gas for heating typically consumes approximately 1.5 % of the vaporized LNG as fuel, which reduces the plant output and the revenue of the terminal. SCVs are used during winter months to supplement ORV, when seawater temperature cannot meet the regasification requirement. The SCV burners can be designed to burn low pressure boil-off gas as well as letdown sendout gas

Intermediate fluid vaporizer:

Shell and tube vaporizer

IFV with Rankine cycle

Ambient Air Technologies

Indirect contact: The indirect contact approach utilizes a closed loop intermediate fluid that is heated with ambient air and transfers the heat from this intermediate fluid to regasify LNG in specially designed shell and tube heat exchangers.

Air-Fin Exchangers
This method utilizes traditional air-fin exchangers with forced draft fans to push the ambient air through the air fin tubes to heat the intermediate fluid which is used to regasify LNG.

Air Tower or reverse acting cooling tower:

where induced draft ambient air heats water in direct contact with circulated water which can then be directly or indirectly transferred to re-gasify LNG

Direct contact AAV

Two types: One uses a Natural Draft Ambient Air Vaporizer (NDAAV). The design of this exchanger utilizes the natural draft from the difference in density for warm and cold ambient air. Ambient air enters the top of the exchanger, exchanges heat directly to the cold LNG fluid flowing in the exchangers specialized finned tubes and the air cools producing a down draft.

The second method Uses a Forced Draft Ambient Air Vaporizer (FDAAV) Here fans are installed on the ambient air vaporizers to force a higher mass of ambient air across the fins of the exchanger for direct heat exchange with cold LNG.

Performance of FDAAV

Direct contact ambient air vaporizers over the Indirect contact ambient air vaporizers (Air Tower or Air-Fin Exchanger technology) is ability to continue to transfer significant amount of sensible heat from the ambient air to cryogenic fluids even when the ambient conditions fall below 32F or below freezing temperatures Obviously, the regeneration of the FDAAV requires some means to heat the air to bring temperatures above 32F during these low ambient conditions.

LNG mobile regasification

Used to provide an un interrupted supply of natural gas power generator sets used on oil and gas drill rigs. The system integrated with 15000 gallons of LNG tanker and integrated with vaporization, flow control and offloading pumps Deploy the system anywhere you need