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Space-time Finite Element Method for One Dimensional Piston Cylinder System

Muhammad Sadiq Sarfaraz CSE Masters Student

Institut fr Statik Technische Universitt Braunschweig

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Objectives of Student Project

To demonstrate different approaches for Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problems using simplified model (based on ODEs) for Piston cylinder system.

Implementation of Finite Element Method (FEM) for fluid problem in relation with its application to Fluid part for Piston cylinder system with increased complexity (1D Euler Equations) Finally to develop a monolithic (coupled) framework for the complete system using Space-time FEM

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1D Piston Cylinder System

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Demonstration of different approaches for FSI problems using simplified model for Piston cylinder system.

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Governing Equations

spring mass system

Isentropic gas law

: mass of piston : spring stiffness : area of piston : ratio of specific heats

: displacement

: pressure
: acceleration : volume of cylinder
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Governing Equations

Reformulating variables for spring-mass system


( displacement )
( velocity )

Using the fact that two arbitrary states of gas can be related through isentropic gas law and that the volume can be expressed as a function of displacement the pressure is given by:

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Governing Equations for Coupled Approach

Differential Equations for

Obtained by differentiating w.r.t time Equations integrated in time as a coupled system


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Governing Equations for Elimination Approach

Differential Equations for from second equation.

only. Pressure eliminated

Pressure is computed after temporal evolution of is obtained from above equations


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Governing Equations for Partitioned Approach

Differential Equations for are same as considered in Coupled approach, considering constant.

4 Variable exchange 1 3 1 Step 1 for next time step

For a give time step repeatedly until

proccess1

4 is carried out
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Results from Applied FSI Approaches

Input parameters
Constant parameters for Spring mass system

Constant parameters for Gas cylinder system

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Results from Applied FSI Approaches

Input parameters
Initial Conditions

Solver for time Integration: Matlab ode23t applies Trapezoidal rule for integration. Symplectic in nature i.e. preserves geometrical structure of solution. Trapezoidal rule is A-stable and second order accurate
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Results from Applied FSI Approaches


Displacement x(t)
For partitioned approach amplitude decreases in time

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Phase plot x(m) vs v(m/s)

For partitioned approach locus of points spirals inwards i.e. demonstrating dissipative behavior

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Isentropic law

For partitioned approach locus of points shrinks along the hyperbolic curve

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Finite Element Formulation for Fluid problem

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Finite Element Formulation for Fluid problem

Objective: Implementation of FE formulation for gas in cylinder governed by 1D Euler Equations Follwing steps are applied:
FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation
Investigate Instability 1 Proposal of Stabilized schemes FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Picard Scheme 2 Newton Scheme Spacetime FEM for Transient problems

Advection Equation 3 Burgers Equation

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Investigate Instability Proposal of Stabilized schemes

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Governing Equation:

Boundary conditions:

:independent variable :solution variable :convection coefficient :diffusion coefficient :source term

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Weak form:

where

is the appropriate weighting function

Discretization of domain shown with isolated element

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Ansatz functions for solution variable ,independent variable and weighting function for element in terms of local coordinates variable

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Definition of derivatives in terms of local coordinates

where

: jacobi matrix defines transformation of derivatives between local and global variables. For given linear ansatz functions:

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

The resulting element matrices and Load vector


Convection Matrix:

Diffusion Matrix:

Load Vector (assuming constant source term):

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Application to model problem:


Considering 10 uniform element giving

and is computed using Peclet number determines the behavior of solution

, which

Convection dominated Diffusion dominated

Analytical solution for

and

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

instability in solution observed for

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Cause of instability for Convection dominated case (

Standard Galerkin approach does not account for the direction of flow governed by convection coefficient Numerically: the amount of diffusion introduced by Galerkin approach is less than the required amount, to get a stable solution. Approximation of convection term is same as taking its central difference approximation in Finite difference method which is same as unstable unstable.
central difference approximation
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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Alternate FEM Formulations studied:


1. Upwind Type Finite Elements.

2. Streamline Upwind (SU) Type Finite Elements.


3. Stabilized Formulations.
In (1) and (2) the ansatz function is different for weighting functions as compared to element solution approximation. (3) is based on addition of stabilization term in standard formulation .
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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Weighting functions for Upwind Type Finite Elements

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation (Upwind type FEM)


Results for

Exact solution at nodes for optimal

Excessively diffusive solution for

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Weighting functions for Streamline Upwind (SU) Type Finite Elements

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation (SU type FEM)


Results using optimal value

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation


Remarks on is vital for accurate solution , since it scales the additional diffusion required for stable solution. Optimal value for yields exact solution at nodes. For more general cases(e.g. unknown exact solution ,variable source term) it is not available explicitly. Remarks on Upwind and SU type FEM schemes: Upwind schemes are more diffusive as compared to SU schemes. However SU schemes result in non residual formulation, (also called Inconsistent SU ) hence do not perform well for general cases (see results for Stabilized schemes)
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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Stabilized Formulations
Modified Weak form:

where

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Variants of Stabilized Formulations based on


1. Galerkin Least squares (GLS) approach

2. Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) approach

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation


Stabilization parameter
For given problem ( ):

Expression for derived for the given problem using exact solution and numerical scheme.
Such analytical expression may not available for more general cases (unknown exact solution or complex source term ) For system of differential equations matrix assumes the form of

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FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Note: For SUPG the same

is used ,which was derived for

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FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Picard Scheme Newton Scheme

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FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation


Governing Equation:

Nonlinearity: the convection coefficient is solution variable

Boundary conditions:

Weak Form:

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FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation


Element nonlinear convection matrix from FEM discretization:

Nonlinearity: solution variable appearing in convection matrix

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FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation


Solution strategies for Nonlinear System of Equations

For PICARD iteration scheme the assembly procedure is same as for linear case i.e stiffness matrices for elements are assembled to get their nonlinear Global counterpart

Solve for

iteratively until

: successive iteration levels

: specified vector norm to measure the error


:specified tolerance to end the iterative procedure
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FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation


Solution strategies for Nonlinear System of Equations

For NEWTON scheme the Global residual vector is expanded around using Taylor series and set to zero neglecting higher order terms

where (Tangent stiffness matrix) Solution update: Procedure continues until


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FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation


Exact solution for Burgers Equation with domain defined on

stationary solution considered ( let

Considering 20 elements with uniform spacing

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FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation


Results

Picard

Newton

Convergence comparison

Newton method converges faster Quadratic or higher degree ansatz functions required for further error reduction

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Advection Equation Burgers Equation

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Considering 1D transient Convection diffusion Equation

with certain initial and boundary conditions

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Discretization of Domain in Space-time FEM In Space-time FEM, the time dimension is treated as a spatial dimension.

Discretization of domain with isolated element


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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Space-time discontinuous Galerkin formulation Considers elements to be discontinuous in time dimension

Interface of elements at time level

Continuity in time is weakly enforced as shown in weak form for a discrete element

enforces inter-element continuity in time

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Element ansatz functions for weighting function , solution approximation and independent variables , in terms of

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Definition of derivatives in terms of local coordinates the element for

Jacobian of transformation between local and global variables

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Stabilization term For stabilization Galerkin Least Square formulation is used (Stabilized Finite element formulation)

Stabilization parameter

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Application to Linear Advection Equation
Time evolution of a unit step profile Sdd 100 elements considered for spatial domain Time evolution till seconds. Spacing of element in time is based on Courant number

Result are shown for


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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


without stabilization

Results for

with GLS stabilization

instability

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Application to Burgers Equation

Weak form for a Space-time slab

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


Stabilization term for the element (GLS Stabilization)

Similarly stabilization parameter

is a variable itself since it depends on solution variable

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Space-time FEM for Transient problems


without stabilization with GLS stabilization

instability

Instability damped significantly

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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


Now implementing FEM for 1D Euler Equations since we already have
Investigated stability issues regarding FEM implementation for Fluid problems and proposed remedial measures Demonstrated solution schemes for nonlinear system of equations arising from FEM application to nonlinear problems FEM method for transient problems: application to both, linear and nonlinear model problems

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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


1D Euler Equations in Conservative form

Solution variable vector (mass, momentum, energy)

Flux vector
Flux jacobian matrix Total Energy per unit mass Total Enthalpy per unit mass Ideal gas law Ratio of specific heat values

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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


Weak form for a Space-time Slab (element)

Stabilization term (GLS formulation)

Inter-element continuity enforced in time (Time discontinuous Galerkin formulation)

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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


Definition of ansatz functions for weighting function, solution variables and independent variables remain the same as discussed for advection and Burgers Equation The definition of jacobian also remains unaltered Only difference is in the structure of resulting matrics since we are dealing with system of Equations (mass, momentum and energy) Stabilization parameter

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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


Application to Shock tube problem
Initial state at
Domain:

Time evolution for:

Element spacing:

Constant parameter

and gas constant

assume the values that of Air


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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

Total Energy

Density

Velocity

Pressure

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Space-time FEM for Piston cylinder system

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Space-time FEM for Piston cylinder system


Objective :To develop a monolithic framework for the given problem using Space-time FEM Steps required:

1. FEM implementation for Structural part. (Spring mass system)


2. Space-time FEM formulation for Euler Equation. (modification required to incorporate deforming domain) 3. Coupling between the Structural and Fluid part. 4. Solution procedure and Mesh update.

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FEM for Spring mass system


The governing equations for are recast in form consistent with FEM Formulation

Time discontinuous Galerkin approach

solution discontinuous at nodes

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FEM for Spring mass system


Weak form for a discrete element

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FEM for Spring mass system


Ansatz function for solution variables, weighting functions and independent variable in terms of local coordinates
unknown known

Final matrix form

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FEM for Spring mass system


Results from some test cases
critically damped system damped System with force term

System with no force and damping term

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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


Using primitive (non conservative) form of Euler Equations for which:
Primitive variables: 1.Density 2.Velocity 3. Pressure is not the Flux jacobian in primitive form

The standard matrix form for Equations remains same as for conservative case. Primitive form makes the coupling procedure simpler.

Space -time discontinuous Galerkin approach is used.


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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


How to account for the deforming domain ?
Fluid domain deformation during time step Deformed element

Answer: Space-time FEM takes care of deforming domain automatically through the definition of jacobian matrix
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Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations


Definition of Jacobian for the element in deforming domain

Unlike the non deforming domain these elements of are variables

Hence the mapping from the global to local domain is handled by Jacobian
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Coupling between Structural and Fluid problems


For Monolithic(Coupled) FSI approach the Global matrices are assembled as one single system

Structure of Global matrix at interface node 1

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Solution procedure and Mesh update


Steps followed:
For given time step the spatial nodes are considered explicitly known. The Global nonlinear system is solved using Picard scheme. The nodal positions for Fluid domain are updated using displacement at node 1 (from structure) employing linear interpolation. The steps above are performed repeatedly until desired convergence is achieved

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