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# Space-time Finite Element Method for One Dimensional Piston Cylinder System

## Objectives of Student Project

To demonstrate different approaches for Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problems using simplified model (based on ODEs) for Piston cylinder system.

Implementation of Finite Element Method (FEM) for fluid problem in relation with its application to Fluid part for Piston cylinder system with increased complexity (1D Euler Equations) Finally to develop a monolithic (coupled) framework for the complete system using Space-time FEM

## 1D Piston Cylinder System

Demonstration of different approaches for FSI problems using simplified model for Piston cylinder system.

Governing Equations

## : mass of piston : spring stiffness : area of piston : ratio of specific heats

: displacement

: pressure
: acceleration : volume of cylinder

Governing Equations

## Reformulating variables for spring-mass system

( displacement )
( velocity )

Using the fact that two arbitrary states of gas can be related through isentropic gas law and that the volume can be expressed as a function of displacement the pressure is given by:

## Governing Equations for Partitioned Approach

Differential Equations for are same as considered in Coupled approach, considering constant.

proccess1

4 is carried out

## Results from Applied FSI Approaches

Input parameters
Constant parameters for Spring mass system

## Results from Applied FSI Approaches

Input parameters
Initial Conditions

Solver for time Integration: Matlab ode23t applies Trapezoidal rule for integration. Symplectic in nature i.e. preserves geometrical structure of solution. Trapezoidal rule is A-stable and second order accurate

## Results from Applied FSI Approaches

Displacement x(t)
For partitioned approach amplitude decreases in time

## Phase plot x(m) vs v(m/s)

For partitioned approach locus of points spirals inwards i.e. demonstrating dissipative behavior

Isentropic law

For partitioned approach locus of points shrinks along the hyperbolic curve

## Finite Element Formulation for Fluid problem

Objective: Implementation of FE formulation for gas in cylinder governed by 1D Euler Equations Follwing steps are applied:
FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation
Investigate Instability 1 Proposal of Stabilized schemes FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

## FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Governing Equation:

Boundary conditions:

:independent variable :solution variable :convection coefficient :diffusion coefficient :source term

Weak form:

where

## FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Ansatz functions for solution variable ,independent variable and weighting function for element in terms of local coordinates variable

## Definition of derivatives in terms of local coordinates

where

: jacobi matrix defines transformation of derivatives between local and global variables. For given linear ansatz functions:

## The resulting element matrices and Load vector

Convection Matrix:

Diffusion Matrix:

## Application to model problem:

Considering 10 uniform element giving

, which

and

## Cause of instability for Convection dominated case (

Standard Galerkin approach does not account for the direction of flow governed by convection coefficient Numerically: the amount of diffusion introduced by Galerkin approach is less than the required amount, to get a stable solution. Approximation of convection term is same as taking its central difference approximation in Finite difference method which is same as unstable unstable.
central difference approximation

## Alternate FEM Formulations studied:

1. Upwind Type Finite Elements.

## 2. Streamline Upwind (SU) Type Finite Elements.

3. Stabilized Formulations.
In (1) and (2) the ansatz function is different for weighting functions as compared to element solution approximation. (3) is based on addition of stabilization term in standard formulation .

Results for

## FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation (SU type FEM)

Results using optimal value

## FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Remarks on is vital for accurate solution , since it scales the additional diffusion required for stable solution. Optimal value for yields exact solution at nodes. For more general cases(e.g. unknown exact solution ,variable source term) it is not available explicitly. Remarks on Upwind and SU type FEM schemes: Upwind schemes are more diffusive as compared to SU schemes. However SU schemes result in non residual formulation, (also called Inconsistent SU ) hence do not perform well for general cases (see results for Stabilized schemes)

## FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Stabilized Formulations
Modified Weak form:

where

## Variants of Stabilized Formulations based on

1. Galerkin Least squares (GLS) approach

## FEM for Convection Diffusion Equation

Stabilization parameter
For given problem ( ):

Expression for derived for the given problem using exact solution and numerical scheme.
Such analytical expression may not available for more general cases (unknown exact solution or complex source term ) For system of differential equations matrix assumes the form of

## FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Governing Equation:

## Nonlinearity: the convection coefficient is solution variable

Boundary conditions:

Weak Form:

## FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Element nonlinear convection matrix from FEM discretization:

## FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Solution strategies for Nonlinear System of Equations

For PICARD iteration scheme the assembly procedure is same as for linear case i.e stiffness matrices for elements are assembled to get their nonlinear Global counterpart

Solve for

iteratively until

## : specified vector norm to measure the error

:specified tolerance to end the iterative procedure

## FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Solution strategies for Nonlinear System of Equations

For NEWTON scheme the Global residual vector is expanded around using Taylor series and set to zero neglecting higher order terms

## FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Exact solution for Burgers Equation with domain defined on

## FEM for Nonlinear Convection Diffusion Equation

Results

Picard

Newton

Convergence comparison

Newton method converges faster Quadratic or higher degree ansatz functions required for further error reduction

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Considering 1D transient Convection diffusion Equation

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Discretization of Domain in Space-time FEM In Space-time FEM, the time dimension is treated as a spatial dimension.

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Space-time discontinuous Galerkin formulation Considers elements to be discontinuous in time dimension

## Interface of elements at time level

Continuity in time is weakly enforced as shown in weak form for a discrete element

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Element ansatz functions for weighting function , solution approximation and independent variables , in terms of

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Definition of derivatives in terms of local coordinates the element for

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Stabilization term For stabilization Galerkin Least Square formulation is used (Stabilized Finite element formulation)

Stabilization parameter

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Time evolution of a unit step profile Sdd 100 elements considered for spatial domain Time evolution till seconds. Spacing of element in time is based on Courant number

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

without stabilization

Results for

instability

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Application to Burgers Equation

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

Stabilization term for the element (GLS Stabilization)

## Space-time FEM for Transient problems

without stabilization with GLS stabilization

instability

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

Now implementing FEM for 1D Euler Equations since we already have
Investigated stability issues regarding FEM implementation for Fluid problems and proposed remedial measures Demonstrated solution schemes for nonlinear system of equations arising from FEM application to nonlinear problems FEM method for transient problems: application to both, linear and nonlinear model problems

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

1D Euler Equations in Conservative form

## Solution variable vector (mass, momentum, energy)

Flux vector
Flux jacobian matrix Total Energy per unit mass Total Enthalpy per unit mass Ideal gas law Ratio of specific heat values

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

Weak form for a Space-time Slab (element)

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

Definition of ansatz functions for weighting function, solution variables and independent variables remain the same as discussed for advection and Burgers Equation The definition of jacobian also remains unaltered Only difference is in the structure of resulting matrics since we are dealing with system of Equations (mass, momentum and energy) Stabilization parameter

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

Application to Shock tube problem
Initial state at
Domain:

## Time evolution for:

Element spacing:

Constant parameter

Total Energy

Density

Velocity

Pressure

## Space-time FEM for Piston cylinder system

Objective :To develop a monolithic framework for the given problem using Space-time FEM Steps required:

## 1. FEM implementation for Structural part. (Spring mass system)

2. Space-time FEM formulation for Euler Equation. (modification required to incorporate deforming domain) 3. Coupling between the Structural and Fluid part. 4. Solution procedure and Mesh update.

## FEM for Spring mass system

The governing equations for are recast in form consistent with FEM Formulation

## FEM for Spring mass system

Weak form for a discrete element

## FEM for Spring mass system

Ansatz function for solution variables, weighting functions and independent variable in terms of local coordinates
unknown known

## FEM for Spring mass system

Results from some test cases
critically damped system damped System with force term

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

Using primitive (non conservative) form of Euler Equations for which:
Primitive variables: 1.Density 2.Velocity 3. Pressure is not the Flux jacobian in primitive form

The standard matrix form for Equations remains same as for conservative case. Primitive form makes the coupling procedure simpler.

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

How to account for the deforming domain ?
Fluid domain deformation during time step Deformed element

Answer: Space-time FEM takes care of deforming domain automatically through the definition of jacobian matrix

## Space-time FEM for 1D Euler Equations

Definition of Jacobian for the element in deforming domain

## Unlike the non deforming domain these elements of are variables

Hence the mapping from the global to local domain is handled by Jacobian

## Coupling between Structural and Fluid problems

For Monolithic(Coupled) FSI approach the Global matrices are assembled as one single system