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WEEK 2 ELEMENT 1

Movement of People and Vehicles

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Movement of People
a) Falls on the level b) Falls from height

Falls on the level: HSE 2003/2004 Fatalities 4 Major injuries 11,269 (37%) Over 3 days 30,767 (24%)

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Slips and Trips: Major Injuries


Slipped on wet surface Slipped on dry surface Tripped over obstruction Tripped over uneven floor surface Slipped, tripped or fell not above Slipped, tripped or fell unknown 2109 530 2,098 955 4,435 885

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Factors contributing to slips, trips and falls


The floor surface: Slippery surface, holes, uneven surface etc. Contamination: Spillages, Leaks Obstructions: Rubbish, trailing cables, rugs etc. The Task: Carrying loads, space to work Environment: Lighting Footwear: Unsuitable footwear The People: Unaware of the dangers

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Slips and Trips Precautions

Designated walkways where possible


Ensure walkways are level Ensure walkways are non slip

Well lit and clearly marked walkways


Procedures to identify problems quickly Eliminate need to carry loads Make employees aware of the hazards

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Employee Precautions to Avoid Slips


Follow designated walking routes Wear appropriate footwear Avoid walking on uneven surfaces Avoid areas where spillages have occurred Avoid poorly lit areas Report any problems immediately

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Causes of Slips etc. on Stairs


Inadequate design: (dimensions, treads, no handrails) Poor housekeeping (Obstructions, trailing cables Poor lighting Slippery surfaces (Oil, Water, Ice) or unsuitable footwear Damaged flooring or coverings Manual handling/rushing

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Action to prevent slips etc. on stairs:


Adequate width of walkway/stairs & handrails fitted Remove obstructions/trailing cables Improve lighting levels and install emergency lighting Non slip surfaces/spillage procedures/covered stairs Maintenance /repair and report defects Use lifts for loads/site rules

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Falls from Height

HSE: 2004/2005
53% fatalities 4,235 Major injuries 4,604 over 3 day injuries

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Fatality Falls by Activity


Activity
Roof Ladder

Fatalities
13 10

Vehicles/Plant Scaffolding Conveying/Lifting Storage Stairs/Steps Others Totals

10 8 3 7 2 53

Major Injuries 134 1,180 805 236 268 177 983 3,783

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Working at Height
a) All work at height is properly planned & organised b) Those involved in work at height are competent

c) Work at height is risk assessed and appropriate work equipment is selected


d) Risks from fragile surfaces are properly controlled

e) Equipment is properly inspected and maintained

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Working at Height Hierarchy


a) Avoid working at height wherever possible
b) Use work equipment or other measures to prevent falls where working at height cannot be avoided

c) Where the risk of falls cannot be eliminated use work equipment or other measures to minimise the distance and consequences of a fall should one occur

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Safety of Pedestrians
In addition to slips trips and falls pedestrians are also vulnerable to hazards that can cause injury to them:

a) Struck by moving or flying objects b) Striking against fixed or stationary objects c) Housekeeping issues

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Housekeeping
Hazards Someone could trip or fall Increased risk of fire Fire exits could be blocked There is a risk of infection Chemicals are being used Infestation (that allows breeding of rats, cockroaches, etc ) Vehicle Collisions Falling materials Precautions Identify housekeeping requirements Responsibilities for housekeeping Resources for good housekeeping Train staff in use of equipment Regular inspections

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CONTROL MEASURES FOR PEDESTRIAN HAZARDS


1) The floor surface
2) Contamination 3) Obstructions

4) The task
5) Environment 6) Footwear 7) The People

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Workplace Transport Accidents


Employees
Fatalities Major injuries Over 3 Days 44 1,782 3,455

Self Employed
16 68 27

Members of public
10 171

Majority involve:
People/Vehicle collision Collisions with other vehicles Falling from vehicles Being struck by insecure loads Vehicles overturning Associated activities, battery charging

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Site Vehicles
Suitable for the task Suitable for the environment Provided with warning aids Protection from falling materials Checked daily Properly maintained

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Segregation if possible Separate routes High visibility clothing Clearly marked/signed routes Gangways suitable width and clearance Speed limits Adequate lighting Clear direction signs and door marking Sharp bends avoided Good floor conditions/gentle gradients Sufficient parking Avoid reversing Alerting people to hazard

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Precautions when Pedestrians working in areas where vehicles are moving


Segregation of vehicles and pedestrians Appropriate road markings Maintaining good visibility (Mirrors, lighting etc.) Audible warning on vehicles Drawing up and enforcement of site rules Provision of refuges Wearing of High visibility clothing Good standard of housekeeping Training and supervision

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Reversing of Vehicles
AVOID REVERSING One-way systems Drive through systems Turning circles IF MUST REVERSE Separation Suitable design Audible alarms Mirrors Adequate lighting Banksmen High visibility clothing Site rules/training

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Driver Selection
Reliable and Mature Pre-employment medical Physically fit Routine medicals Licensed Trained and competent Supervised and monitored Given refresher training

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Training Programme for Vehicle Drivers in Workplace


Should include: Personal responsibilities Safe working load estimation Pre-use vehicle inspection Suitable maintenance Safe parking and security Speed restrictions Safety rules and signs Floor conditions Vehicle reversing

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Vehicle Fuels - HAZARDS

Battery

Petrol and diesel

LPG

PETROL, DIESEL , LPG HAZARDS


Flammable/harmful liquid has to be properly stored Flames or sparks from air inlet or exhaust systems Exhaust fumes including carbon monoxide Surface temperature of exhaust system/hot surfaces Noise Also manual handling of LPG cylinders

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Battery Charging
Hazards
Give off hydrogen gas Electrical short circuits Corrosive effect of acids Manual handling Ensure good ventilation No sources of ignition/smoking Suitable PPE Insulated tools Lifting equipment

Precautions

Remember: Electrical powered vehicles are quiet

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Visiting Vehicles
Drivers aware of works rules Safe systems of work Good storage area design

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Long Distance Delivering Vehicles


The Job The Driver The Vehicle The Load Duration of journey, road condition, Means of Communication, security Physical and psychological (mental ) capabilities, level of training Suitable for the load, design and layout of cab, maintenance Properly labelled if hazardous, Spillage procedures, weight, value

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Fork Trucks and Dumpers

Counterbalance

Rough Terrain

Telescopic

Industrial Reach

Pedestrian

Compact Dumper

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Fork Lift Truck Attachments (1)

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Fork Lift Truck Attachments (2)

Rotator and clamp

Paper Reel clamp

Drum clamp attachment

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Fork Lift Truck Attachments (3)


Self dumping hopper

Boom

Crane Jib attachment

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Fork Lift Truck Mounted Working Platform


Small as possible Not to carry more than 2 people Edge protection Locked gate Guard to protect against moving parts Safety harness and fitting points

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Reasons why fork lift trucks overturn


Travelling on gradients too steep Travelling forwards when descending slopes Being overloaded, unevenly loaded or carrying unstable loads

Travelling on soft/uneven ground


Travelling over slippery surfaces

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Reasons why fork lift trucks overturn


Travelling too fast especially around corners
Travelling over kerbs, steps etc.

Poor maintenance of truck/roads


Poor driving/driver training Not suitable for the task

Carrying loads at dangerous heights

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Hazards to Drivers
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Fumes (diesel/petrol) Fire/explosion Collisions with building Manual handling Falling objects Noise Vibration Ergonomics Electrical hazards

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Pre-use Check on Fork Lift Trucks


Condition and pressure of tyres Functioning of lights, horns, brakes Warning devices working Suitable mirrors Engine for oil leaks Water leaks Seat securely fixed/suitable restraints Damage to bodywork/lifting mechanisms Security of equipment fitted i.e. LPG tank

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Parking of Fork Lift Trucks


Designated parking area Applying brakes Controls in neutral position Switch off engine Removing key & returning to responsible person Forks resting on floor Mast tilted slightly forward Not obstructing walkways Not obstructing fire exits/fire points

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Examination of Fork Lift Trucks


Fork lift trucks should be inspected:
Before its first use Daily by the driver 12 monthly intervals (6 months if carrying persons) by a competent person Complying with schedule Circumstances that may compromise safety of the truck:

NEBOSH Summary of Hazards


Overturning Overloading Loss of load Collisions Machine failure Falling from loading bays Explosions and fire Exhaust fume emission Passengers Inappropriate parking Manual handling Vibration/noise Silent running

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Fork Lift Trucks