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HISTOLOGY DEPARTMENT MEDICAL FACULTY BANDUNG ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

1.

Internal genitalia : testes ,Glands and ducts (produce


and transport the spermatozoa and the seminal fluid)

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External genitalia : penis, scrotum


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Diagram of the
Bladder Prostate Ampulla Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct

male genital system (shown in color). The testis and the epididymis are shown in different scales than the
Ductus epididymidis Ductuli efferentes Epididymis

Urethra Penis Corpus cavernosum of the penis Corpus cavernosum of the urethra Prepuce Glans penis Testicular lobules Tunica albuginea Tunica vaginalis Tubuli recti Rete testis

Bulbourethral gland Ductus deferens

other parts of the reproductive system. Observe the communication between the testicular lobules.
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Mediastinum testis

1. Testes
Located in scrotum Function (exocrine, endocrine, sprematogenesis)

a. Exocrine component
Seminiferous tubules Intratesticular genital ducts

Excretory genital ducts

b. Endocrine component
Testosterone secreting interstitial cells
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2. Accessory Glands

Seminal vesicles Prostate glands Bulbourethral glands Glands of Littre

Ducts
1. Intratesticular ducts Convoluted seminiferous tubules Tubuli recti

Rete testis
Ductuli efferentes

2. Excretory Genital Ducts


Ductus epididymidis Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct Urethra

External Genitalia
Penis and scrotum

Testes
1. External Covering

a. Tunica vaginalis Double layered mesothelial sac, covers the anterior surface of each testis b. Tunica albuginea Dense fibrous connective tissue capsule

Thickens along posterior surface mediastinum testis

TESTES

2. Internal Structure

a. Septa : Extension of tunica albuginea, 250 lobules b. Lobules

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Seminiferous Tubule
1. General Structure
Each long : 40 70 cm, convoluted, packed into small space.

The walls composed of 3 layers :

a. Tunica propria
Fibrous connective tissue + fibroblasts Innermost layers : contractile myoid cells

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Seminiferous Tubule b. Basal lamina


Between tunica propria and seminiferous epithelium

c. Seminiferous epithelium
Spermatogenic cells Sertoli cells

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Cytoplasmic bridges Late spermiogenesis Initial spermiogenesis Meiosis Early spermatids Secondary spermatocytes Primary spermatocytes Spermatogonium Basal lamina Fibroblast

Interstitial cells

Diagram of the structure of part of a seminiferous tubule and interstitial tissue. This figure does not show the lymphatic 14 vessels found in the connective tissue.

SPERMATOGENESIS

These changes involve flattening of the nucleus, formation of an acrosome which resembles a large lysosome, growth of a flagellum (tail) from the basal body, reorganization of the mitochondria in the midpiece region, and shedding of unneeded cytoplasm as a residual body.
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2. Spermatogenic Cells
a. Spermatogonia

Small round cells, near the basal lamina


Round nucleus + Heterochromatin

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b. Primary spermatocytes
Closer to the lumen than spermatogonium
Largest germ cells

Large round nucleus, heterochromatin

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c. Secondary spermatocytes
Closer to lumen than primary spermatocytes Half size

Rare

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d. Spermatids
Products of second meiotic division
located next to the lumen. Small cells :

Dark heterochromatic nuclei

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e. Spermatozoa
Result of spermiogenesis
In lumen Long flagella

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3. Supporting Sertoli Cells


Mesoderm Elongated, branched, pyramidal epithelial cells Cytoplasmic enfolding Bound tightly to neighboring supporting cells

occluding junction.

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Structure of Mature Spermatozoa


1. Head

Oval outline
Long 4 5 m Mostly nucleus 2/3 anterior nucleus covered by acrosome

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2. Tail

Enveloped by plasma membrane Middle piece : 5 7 m mitochondrial arranged end to end in helical sheath around flagellum Principal piece Outer fibrous sheath with dorsal and ventral longitudinal columns Flagellum End piece Lacks fibrous sheath

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Interstitial Cells (Leydig)


Mesoderm Secrete : testosterone Vascular nests of pale acidophilic cells in loose connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules

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G. Blood Testis Barrier


Protects the developing sperm from damage by an autoimmune response. The barriers consists of a continuous belt of junctional complexes joining the sertoli cells at their lateral surfaces.

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III. DUCT SYSTEM


From tubuli recti ejaculatory duct urethra

A. Intratesticular Genital Duct


1. Tubuli Recti Only Sertoli cells Simple cuboidal epithelium Dense connective tissue

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2. Rete Testis
Anastomosing network Mediastinum testis Low cuboidal epithelium

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3. Ductuli Efferentes

10 20 ducts

Walls :
Epithelium Simple cuboidal : absorb fluid

Ciliated columnar cells : Cilia


Smooth muscle

sweep
spermatozoa

The ductules form the head of the epididymis


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SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, STRAIGHT TUBULES, RETE TESTIS AND DUCTULI EFFERENTES

1. Seminiferous tubules

3. Connective tissue of mediastinum 4. Rete testis tubules 5. Ductuli efferentes (efferent ductules 6. Rete testis tubules

2. Straight tubules

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B. Excretory Genital Duct


1. Ductus Epididymidis Single, coiled 4 6 m long tube Comprises the body and tail epididymis Epithelium : pseudostratified columnar + stereocilia Circular smooth muscle

Function :

Maturation of sperm Absorption Secretion (glycoprotein) Sperm storage


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Ductus Epididymidis (Duct of the Epididymis)


1. Connective tissue 2. Cross sections of the ductus epididymidis 5. Section through of Ubend of the ductus epididymidis

6. Epididymal wall cut tangentially 3. Basement membrane 7. Smooth muscle fibers 8. Stereocilia 4. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia 9. Columnar cells 10. Basal cell

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2. Ductus Deferens
Straight tube with thick muscular walls Longitudinal mucosal fold Pseudostratified columnar epithelial + stereocilia Three layer smooth muscle

Termination : ampulla
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Ductus Deferens (Transverse section)


1. Outer longitudinal muscle layer

2. Circular muscle layer 3. Inner longitudinal muscle layer

5. Lamina propria 6. Longitudinal crest of lamina propria 7. Epithelium

8. Adipose tissue

4. Nerve and blood vessels in the adventitious


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3. Ejaculatory Duct

Short 2 cm/long

Epithelium, pseudostratified columnar


Penetrates prostate empty to prostatic urethra

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IV. ACCESSORY GENITAL DUCTS


SEMINAL VESICLE
PROSTATE GLAND BULBO URETHRAE GLANDS (COWPERS GLAND) LITTRES GLAND

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A. Seminal Vesicle

Paired

Each consist of two highly coiled 15 cm long tubes


Mucosa : highly folded Pseudostratified low columnar epithelium
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Secretory product : thick yellowish liquid rich in fructose Make up 70% human ejaculate

Smooth muscle : underlying the lamina


propria

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Seminal Vesicle

4. Glandular epithelium 1. Crypts in the mucosa

5. Primary fold in the mucosa 6. Secondary folds 7. Lamina propria

2. Muscular coat 3. Adventitia

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B. Prostate Gland
Largest male accessory sex glands 30 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands The glands of the prostate are collected into three major groups Mucosal glands Submucosal glands Main glands Drained by a discrete ductal system prostatic urethra

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Mucosa : folded, epithelium varies from tall cuboidal to pseudostratified columnar. Produces : fluid, rich in citric acid and acid phosphatase, amylase
Surrounded by fibroelastic capsule containing smooth muscle capsule Characteristic : Corpora amylacea in lumen Composed of glycoprotein calcified
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Submucosal glands

Diagram illustrating the position of the prostatic glands


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Prostate Gland

1. Prostatic concretions

4. Glandular epithelium

5. Ducts 2. Glandular alveoli 6. Smooth muscle fibers

3. Glandular ducts 7. Capillary and venule

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C. Bulbo Urethral Glands (Cowpers Glands)


Located within the musculature of the pelvic diaphragm Lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium Their secretion consists of a clear, mucus-like material ducts empty into membranous urethra

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V. PENIS

2 CORPORA CAVERNOSUS CORVUS SPONGIOSUM

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V. PENIS
A. Consists of three cylindric bodies of spongy erectile tissue surrounded by a loose connective tissue sheath and covered by hairless thin skin. 1. Corpora Cavernous Two dorsal erectile cylinders

Deep artery
Sheathed by tunica albuginea (thick dense connective tissue)

Spaces of erectile tissue : largest in the central region

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Dorsal arteries

Superficial dorsal vein Deep dorsal vein Tunica albuginea Deep artery

Corpus cavernosum of the penis Erectile tissue Urethra Corpus cavernosum of the urethra

Drawing of a transverse section of the penis


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2. Corpus Spongiosum (Corpus Cavernosum Urethra)


Single, smaller Ventral cylinder Surrounded by a thinner connective tissue sheath Expanded distal tip glans penis Spaces of erectile tissue : uniform size

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Erectile tissue :
An irregularly arranged network of fibrous connective tissue trabecle containing smooth muscle fibers.

Lacunae (vascular sinuses) lined by endothelium

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