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Philippine Textile Research Institute Department of Science and Technology


Nora B. Mangalindan Chief, Science Research Specialist

Philippine- Agriculture
The Philippines is an agricultural country with a land area of 30 million hectares (300, 000 km2 ), 47% of which is agricultural land
Source: FAO of the United Nations, 2010

Agriculture - Economy
Service Sector

Industrial Sector

Agricultural Sector

Source: Data from the National Statistical Coordination Board, 1946-2012

Agriculture- Employment
Percent Distribution of Employed Persons by Major Industry Group: 2012

The National Statistics Office noted that over 1.15 million Filipinos were employed in agriculture as of January 2013, the 2nd largest number of people employed in a sector next to the 2.05 million employed in services

Agriculture- Exports
Agricultural exports earnings in 2011 made up the 9.62 % of the countrys total export earnings of $51.9 billion for the year, reaching up to $5.4 billion.

*Source: Bureau of Agricultural Statistics

Agriculture Natural Fibers

Annual Productions (Baling) of Philippine Commercial Fibers
ABACA 26 % Coir fibers 1 % Others


Less than 1% of the total agricultural export of the country is Natural Fiber Abaca (Manila hemp) is the forefront natural fiber of the Philippines in terms of demand (local and international) and production followed by coir fibers from coconut. Other natural fibers accounts for the remaining 1% of the 2012 annual commercial fiber production

73% Abaca fibers


*Source: Fiber Industry Development Authority (FIDA), Fiber Statistics

Natural Fibers- Applications

- ropes and nets - brushes, carpets and mats - mattresses - paper and board - yarns, fabrics and textile materials The long bers are transformed to threads or yarns that are used to join, connect or attach to form bonds, networks or weaves

Natural Fibers- Textile

eco-friendly fabrics are made by incorporating natural fibers derived from pia leaves, abaca fibers, banana trunks, jute stalks and raw silk cocoon Most notable of these fabrics (e.g. pina-silk) are handwoven materials which entails labor intensive input to achieve desired quality

Ilocos Abel Ilocos/Abra Binakel Ifugao Ikat

Kalinga Gilamat

Mountain Province Bayaong Samar Banig

Ilo-ilo Hablon

Zamboanga/ Basilan Seputangan

South Cotabato Tnalak

Abel Iloko Warp: cotton Weft: cotton +pineaple fiber

Hablon Warp: cotton Weft: cotton

Tnalak Warp: cotton Weft: cotton + abaca

Hand weaving -Philippines

A tradition passed from generation after generation An indigenous Filipino art, showcasing culture from different Philippines ethnic groups

Good source of secondary income for their families

Types of Hand Looms

Backstrap Loom
The frame is consists of warp stick and cloth stick The warp stick is attached to a stationary pole and the cloth stick is joined to a backstrap around the waist of the weaver The tension is controlled by the forward and backward movement of the body Production is slow averaging at 1-2 yards per day

Types of Hand Looms

Upright or Floor Loom Ilocano-type Loom

Conventional loom designed with warp, cloth, back and breast beam Uses counterweight shredding mechanism which has been improved that led to the development of jack-type loom

Types of Hand Looms

Upright or Floor Loom Visayan-type Loom
A counterbalance loom which does not have a breast beam The distance between the front beam and the back beam is longer than what is typical from the ilocano-type loom The beater and the harness can be pushed backward to accommodate long woven fabrics

Types of Hand Looms

Upright or Floor LoomCounter balance Loom
Automatic action of the harness or shaft is controlled by pressing the pedal with the feet Depending on the design, some unevenness in the height of the shed occurs with the warp line higher than the raise board

It is limited to four harnesses and recommended for fabric wider than 40 inches

Types of Hand Looms

Upright or Floor LoomJack-type loom
The jack-type loom is a rising shed loom on which any number of harnesses may be raised without affecting the height of the shed Each harness functions independently; when one set of harness is raised, the other remains stationary and the warp line is at the bottom of the reed touching the raise board.
*Source: www.pacificwoolandfiber.com

Types of Hand Looms

Upright or Floor LoomCountermarch loom
The harness is operated independently as in the jacktype loom It does not only lift the harnesses for a particular shed but also forces down those harnesses giving a large and clear shed for the weft to pass through

It has two sets of lamms one above the other, which permit the combined raising and lowering actions of the harnesses

Types of Hand Looms

Upright or Floor LoomDobby loom
Can hold a maximum of 18 harnesses and has two treadles, one for creating a shed and another for the movement of the dobby bars

Shedding action is controlled by dobby mechanism which contains a chain of bars. Each bar has inserted pegs that select shafts to be raised
Geometric patterns are normally executed on this loom

Types of Hand Looms

Upright or Floor LoomJacquard loom
Is widely used in Korea, India and Japan but is not yet available in the Philippines A cord connects a metal needle to each heddle, where the warp yarns are threaded through. A series of cards are punched with holes in a preordained pattern arranged in sequence and laced together to pass through the machine


Types of Hand Looms

Modified looms developed in Regions- Central Cordillera
Modified backstrap loom transforming rods to two-harness counterbalance loom with additional four harnesses for the pattern Production of Abras binakel and pinilian through conventional backstrap loom found their way to upright loom by the weavers in Ilocos Sur The pinilian on backstrap loom with 8 to 32 rods was simulated on a 2harness counterbalance loom. Wider fabric (36 inches) in less time is thus produced.

PTRI- Intervention

PTRI- Intervention

PTRI- Intervention
Dyeing technology courses
Dyeing of natural and synthetic yarns/fabrics
Hands-on workshop on techniques in dyeing natural/indigenous materials Training on pretreatment processes, dye classifcation and color matching

Extraction and application of natural dyes

Hands-on training and lecture on the extraction of dyes from indigenous plant sources and their application to fibers/yarns/fabrics including pretreatment prcesses

PTRI- Intervention
Basic handloom weaving
Hands-on worshop on the dressing and operation of a handloom and actual weaving of basic design Execution of different designs in a handloom of more than 2 harnesses

Spinning technology
Includes an overview of textile production quality control on materials and products ad hands-on in spinning process

Development of weave design

Serve as refenrece for a more aesthetic and value added premium to the fabrics for weavers, yarn manufacturers, fabric designers and garment technologists

PTRI Interventions