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Section 3 : Business Continuity

Backup and Recovery

Chapter 12

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The #1 Certification Program in the information storage and management industry

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Chapter Objective
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: o Describe Backup/Recovery considerations

o Describe Backup/Recovery operations


o Describe Backup topologies o Describe backup technologies

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Lesson: Backup/Recovery Overview


Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to: o Define Backup and backup consideration

o Describe purposes of backup


o Explain backup granularity and restore o List backup methods o Describe backup/recovery process and operation

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What is a Backup?
o Backup is an additional copy of data that can be used for restore and recovery purposes o The Backup copy is used when the primary copy is lost or corrupted o This Backup copy can be created by:
o Simply copying data (there can be one or more copies)
o Mirroring data (the copy is always updated with whatever is written to the primary copy)

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Its All About Recovery


o Businesses back up their data to enable its recovery in case of potential loss o Businesses also back up their data to comply with regulatory requirements o Backup purposes:
o Disaster Recovery
o Restores production data to an operational state after disaster

o Operational
o Restore data in the event of data loss or logical corruptions that may occur during routine processing

o Archival
o Preserve transaction records, email, and other business work products for regulatory compliance
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Backup/Recovery Considerations
o What are the restore requirements RPO & RTO?
o If RPO is one day, data needs to be backed up at least once every day

o Where and when will the restores occur? o What are the most frequent restore requests? o Which data needs to be backed up? o How frequently should data be backed up?
o hourly, daily, weekly, monthly

o How long will it take to backup? o How many copies to create? o How long to retain backup copies?
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Other Considerations: Data


o Location
o Heterogeneous platform o Local and remote

o Number and size of files


o Large files are faster to backup compared to multiple smaller files of the same size
o 10 files of 1MB size vs. 10000 files of 1KB size

o The use of data compression can save space


o Text files compresses really well o Binary files cannot compress very well o Files such as JPEG and ZIP are already compressed and therefore is unlikely to be compressed further

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Backup Granularity
o Full backup
o Backup of the complete data at a certain point in time

o Incremental backup
o Copies data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup o Much faster, but takes longer to restore

o Cumulative (differential) backup


o Copies data that has changed since the last full backup o Slower than incremental backup, but faster to restore

o Synthetic (constructed) full backup


o A full backup generated from the latest full backup and all the incremental backups performed after that full backup o Enables full backup copy to be done offline
2009 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved.

Backup Granularity
Full Backup

Su

Su

Su

Su

Su

Incremental Backup

Su M

T W

S Su M

W T

S Su M

W T

S Su M

W T

S Su

Cumulative (Differential) Backup

Su M

T W

S Su M

W T

S Su M

W T

S Su M

W T

S Su

Amount of data backup


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Restoring from Incremental Backup


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

Files 1, 2, 3

File 4

Updated File 3

File 5

Files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Full Backup

Incremental

Incremental

Incremental

Production

o Key Features
o Files that have changed since the last backup are backed up o Fewest amount of files to be backed up, therefore faster backup and less storage space
o Longer restore because last full and all subsequent incremental backups must be applied

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Restoring from Cumulative Backup


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday
Friday

Files 1, 2, 3

File 4

Files 4, 5

Files 4, 5, 6

Files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Full Backup

Cumulative

Cumulative

Cumulative

Production

o Key Features
o More files to be backed up, therefore it takes more time to backup and uses more storage space o Much faster restore because only the last full and the last cumulative backup must be applied

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Backup Methods
o Cold or offline o Hot or online

o Backing up online production data is challenging because a file may be locked by the OS and cannot be copied until it is closed. There are two ways to handle this
o Retry until file is closed and can be accessed
o Use Open File Agents

o Point in Time (PIT) replica


o Copies snapshots of changed data o Consumes small space and can be created very quickly

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Backup Methods
o Backup file metadata for consistency o Boot sector and partition layout are critical for successful recovery o Bare metal recovery (BMR)
o All metadata, system information and applications configurations are backed up o Builds the base system: partitioning, file system layout, operating system, applications and all related configurations

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Backup Architecture and Process


o Backup client
o Sends backup data to backup server or storage node

o Backup server
o Manages backup operations and maintains backup catalog
Backup Data

o Storage node
o Responsible for writing data to Application Server/ backup device
Backup Client Backup Server/ Storage Node

Storage Array

Tape Library

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Backup Operation
Application Server and Backup Clients
1 Start of scheduled backup process 2 Backup server retrieves backup related information from backup catalog Backup server instructs storage node to load backup media in backup device Backup server instructs backup clients to send its metadata to the backup server and data to be backed up to storage node Backup clients send data to storage node

3a

3b

3b

5 1 2 7 6 7 3a 5

Storage node sends data to backup device

Storage node sends media information to backup server Backup server update catalog and records the status

Backup Server

Storage Node

Backup Device

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Restore Operation
Application Server and Backup Clients
1 Backup server scans backup catalog to identify data to be restore and the client that will receive data Backup server instructs storage node to load backup media in backup device Data is then read and send to backup client Storage node sends restore metadata to backup server

4 3 5

Backup server updates catalog

Backup Server
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Storage Node

Backup Device

Lesson Summary
Key points covered in this lesson: o Purposes for Backup

o Considerations for backup and recovery


o Backup granularity
o Full, Cumulative, Incremental

o Backup methods o Backup/recovery process and operation

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Lesson: Backup/Recovery Topologies & Technologies


Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to: o Describe backup topologies
o Direct backup
o LAN and LAN free backup o Mixed backup

o Detail backup in NAS environment o Describe backup technologies


o Backup to tape o Backup to disk o Backup to virtual tape

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Backup Topologies
o There are 3 basic backup topologies:
o Direct Attached Based Backup o LAN Based Backup o SAN Based Backup o Mixed backup

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Direct Attached Backups

Metadata

Data

LAN

Backup Server

Application Server and Backup Client and Storage Node

Backup Device

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LAN Based Backups


Application Server

and Backup Client

Backup Server

Metadata

LAN
Data

Storage Node

Backup Device

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SAN Based Backups (LAN Free)

LAN
Metadata

FC SAN
Data

Backup Server

Application Server and Backup Client

Backup Device

Storage Node

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Mixed Backup
Application Server and Backup Client

Metadata

LAN
Metadata

FC SAN
Data

Backup Server

Application Server

and Backup Client

Backup Device

Storage Node

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Backup in NAS Environment Server Based

Storage

LAN

FC SAN

NAS Head Application Server (Backup Client) Backup Device

Backup Request
Backup Server/ Storage Node

Data Metadata

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Backup in NAS Environment Serverless

Storage

LAN

FC SAN

NAS Head Application Server (Backup Client) Backup Device

Backup Request
Backup Server / Storage Node
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Data Metadata

Backup in NAS Environment NDMP 2-way

Storage

LAN

FC SAN

NAS Head Application Server (Backup Client) Backup Device

Backup Request
Backup Server

Data Metadata

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Backing up a NAS Device NDMP 3-way


NAS Head
FC SAN

LAN LAN

Storage

Application Server (Backup Client) NAS Head

FC SAN

Backup Device

Backup Request Data


Backup Server
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Metadata

Backup Technology options


o Backup to Tape
o Physical tape library

o Backup to Disk o Backup to virtual tape


o Virtual tape library

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Backup to Tape
o Traditional destination for backup o Low cost option

o Sequential / Linear Access


o Multiple streaming
o Backup streams from multiple clients to a single backup device
Data from Stream 1 Data from Stream 2

Data from Stream 3

Tape

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Physical Tape Library


Drives Drives Cartridges

Import/

Export
Mailbox

Linear Robotics System

Power Systems Server Class Main Controller I/O Management Unit Front View
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Back View

Tape Limitations
o Reliability
o Restore performance
o Mount, load to ready, rewind, dismount times

o Sequential Access o Cannot be accessed by multiple hosts simultaneously

o Controlled environment for tape storage


o Wear and tear of tape o Shipping/handling challenges o Tape management challenges
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Backup to Disk
o Ease of implementation o Fast access

o More Reliable
o Random Access o Multiple hosts access o Enhanced overall backup and recovery performance

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Tape versus Disk Restore Comparison


Disk
Backup / Restore

24 Minutes 108 Minutes


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Tape
Backup / Restore

Recovery Time in Minutes*


*Total time from point of failure to return of service to e-mail users

Typical Scenario:
800 users, 75 MB mailbox 60 GB database

Source: EMC Engineering and EMC IT


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Virtual Tape Library


Backup Server/
Storage Node

FC SAN

LAN

Virtual Tape Library Appliance

Emulation Engine Storage (LUNs)

Backup Clients
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Tape Versus Disk Versus Virtual Tape

Tape

Disk-Aware Backup-to-Disk No

Virtual Tape

Offsite Capabilities

Yes No inherent protection methods Subject to mechanical operations, load times

Yes

Reliability

RAID, spare

RAID, spare

Performance

Faster single stream

Faster single stream

Use

Backup only

Multiple (backup/production)

Backup only

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Data De-duplication
o Data de-duplication refers to removal of redundant data. In the de-duplication process, a single copy of data is maintained along with the index of the original data, so that data can be easily retrieved when required. Other than saving disk storage space and reduction in hardware costs, (storage hardware, cooling, backup media, etc), another major benefit of data de-duplication is bandwidth optimization.

2009 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved.

Lesson Summary
Key points covered in this lesson: o Backup topologies
o Direct attached, LAN and SAN based backup
o Backup in NAS environment

o Backup to Tape

o Backup to Disk
o Backup to virtual tape o Comparison among tape, disk and virtual tape backup

2009 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved.

Chapter Summary
Key points covered in this chapter: o Backup and Recovery considerations and process

o Backup and Recovery operations


o Common Backup and Recovery topologies o Backup technologies
o Tape, disk, and virtual tape

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Check Your Knowledge


o What are three primary purposes for backup? o What are the three topologies that support backup operation?

o Describe three major considerations of backup/recovery.


o What are the advantages and disadvantages in tape and virtual tape backups? o What are the three levels of granularity found in Backups? o How backup is performed using virtual tape library?

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