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Tools For System Analysis & Design

Flow Charts

• John Von Neumann in 1945


• Provide communication
• Provide an overview
• Check logic
• Facilitate programming
• Provide Documentation
Flowchart Basics

• 2 types of flowchart
– System flowchart-used by analysts to describe
data flow. They show origin of data, filling
structure, processing to be performed and the
output to be generated.
– Program flowchart- used by programmers to plan
the program structure.
• American National Standards Institute
groups the symbols in 3 categories
– Basic Symbols
– Specialized Input/Output Symbols
– Specialized Process Symbols
Usage

• Basic symbols are used throughout the


charting conventions
• Specialized input/output symbols are
most often used in system flowcharts,
where there is a need of showing h/w
and media
• Specialized process symbols are most
often used in program flowcharts
Basic Symbols

Process
Input/Output

Flow

Comments,
Remarks,
Notes
Specialized Input/Output Symbols

Punch Card Manual Input

Magnetic Tape Display

Communication
Direct Access
Link
Storage

Offline Storage
Document

Online Storage
Specialized Process Symbols

Decision

Predefined Process

Manual Storage

Connector
Termination
(Start/Stop)
Data Flow Diagram (DFD)

• To show logical flow of data in the system


• Context or 0 level
• Level 1
• Level 2
• ………….
• …………
• Level n
Basic Symbols
• Organizations, departments, persons other systems
External • Originate input or receive output
Entities • May be duplicated

• Transform inputs to output


• Represent manual or automated activities
Process or Process • Must have atleast one input and one output data flow
• May be numbered

• Store data between processes


• Must be connected only to processes (by data flows)
Data Store • Must have atleast one input and one output data flow
• May be duplicated

• Represents transfers of data among entities,


processes, and data stores
Data Flow • Arrows represent direction of flows
• Must be labeled to describe data being transferred
Context Diagram (0 level DFD)

Customers Manager
Sales Order

Receipt
Sales Sales Results
Processing
System
Level 1 DFD
Managers

Selected Results
Customers Sales Order

3.0
Perform
1.0 Sales
Capture Selected Sales Data Analysis
Receipt Sales
Transactions

Sales Transactions Sales Analysis File

Selected Sales Data


Sales Transaction File

2.0
Process
Sales Transactions Sales
Transactions
Update Sales Master
Records
Sales Master Records
New Sales Master
Old Sales Master File File
Level 2 DFD
Sales Order
1.1
Capture Sales Orders
Customers Sales
Transactions

Receipt
Sales Orders Sales Order File

Sales Transactions
1.2
Convert Sales Transaction
Source File
Documents
Sales Transactions

New Sales Master


File
1.3
Sort
Transactions Sorted Sales Sorted Sales
Transactions Transactions
Ford Purchasing System (0 Level DFD)

Order
Material Supplier
Material Requirement
Planning
Dept. Payment

Purchasing Invoice
System

Receiving
Dept. Confirmation
of Receipt
Level 1 DFD-Ford Purchasing
System Material
Material Requirement 1.0 Purchase
Planning Order order
Dept. Material

Purchase order

P O Details 2.0
Purchase orders Decide Invoice
What Supplier
To
Pay
Receipt confirmations Receipt
Details
Payment
Authorization
Receipt Confirmation

3.0 Payment
Pay
Receiving
The
Dept.
Supplier
Level 2 DFD-Ford Purchasing
System Material
Requirement
1.1
Identify
Qualified
Material Material Requirement & Qualified
Suppliers
Planning Suppliers
Dept.
Requested price &
Supplier Profile 1.2 delivery terms
Negotiate
Prices & Supplier
Delivery
Terms
Offered price &
Qualified Suppliers 1.3 delivery terms
Decide
Which Final Price &
Supplier Delivery Terms
To Use For Each Supplier Purchase Order

Material ordered,
Supplier, price & 1.4
delivery terms Create
The Receipt confirmations
Purchase Purchase
Order Order
Entity Relationship Diagrams
(ERD)
• Association among different categories
of data in an IS
• Does not show how data is created,
captured, processed, used, transmitted
etc.
• Various styles; most popular Peter Chen
Style
Purpose of ERD

• Registration system for a university?


• What kinds of things does this IS collect
information about?
– Entities? (Courses, professors, students etc.)
• What is the relationship between these
entities? (Student can be enrolled in several
courses)
• What specific information does it collect
about each of those things?
– Attributes? (Student: Name, address etc.)
Peter Chen Style Representation

Customer Order
Order ID
Customer ID
Places or Order date
Name
Is placed by Order price
Address
Shipping cost

Item
Item ID
Item name Contains or
Quantity in hand Is Contained by
Current price
James Martin Style Representation

Customer Places
Order
Is Placed By

Is Contained On Contains

Item
Another Example
Department Offers
Course

Belongs to
Has

Teaches
Professor Section

Office