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PART 2

Network Planning
NEC Corporation
CONTENTS
1. Check customers requirements
2. Establish performance objective
3. Determine frequency allocation plan
4. Select equipment
5. Link budget analysis
1. Check customers requirements
What Is the Business
Requirement?
What do we need to know before
network design?
Traffic volume, system capacity
Transmission data speed
Performance objectiveavailability
and reliability
Installed locations-- economics
Scalability
Network and System management
Interoperatity
CUSTOMERS REQUIREMENTS
2. Establish performance objective
Microwave
links
2.28
MICROWAVE QUALITY:
ERROR PERFORMANCE & AVAILABILITY
The error performance events defined are
ES (Errored second): a one second period during which
one or more EBs (errored block) occurs.
SES (Severely errored second): a one second period during which
30% or more of EBs occurs.
BBE (Background block error): an errored block not occurring
as part of SES.

Error performance parameters defined are:
severely errored second ratio (SESR),
background block errored ratio (BBER), and
errored second ratio (ESR).

It is generally agreed that SER and BBER will also be satisfied once SESR
meets the objective.
Error Performance objective-suggested evaluation period 1 month

Hypothetical Reference Path: 27,500km


National
Portion
International Portion
Terminating
Country
National
Portion
Terminating
Country
Intermediate Countries
(4 countries assumed)
Inter-
Country
IG: International Gateway
PEP: Path end point
PC: Primary Center
SC: Secondary Center
TC: Tertiary Center
PEP IG IG IG IG IG IG PEP
PEP Local Exchange IG PC, SC or TC
Access Short haul Long haul
Quality of Microwave link--Error Performance objective
Long haul
Rate
(Mbps)
1.5 to 5 5 to 15 15 to 55 55 to 160 160 to
3500
Severely errored
second ratio (SESR)
0.002 A 0.002 A 0.002 A 0.002 A 0.002 A
where A = (A1 + 0.01) Llink / 500 for 50 km Llink 500 km
A = A1 + 2 10
-5
Llink for Llink > 500 km
A1 is provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 1% to 2%.

Short haul
Rate
(Mbps)
1.5 to 5 5 to 15 15 to 55 55 to 160 160 to
3500
Severely errored
second ratio (SESR)
0.002 B 0.002 B 0.002 B 0.002 B 0.002 B
Where B is provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 7.5% to 8.5%. B = 0.075
is used unless otherwise specified by the customer.

Access
Rate
(Mbps)
1.5 to 5 5 to 15 15 to 55 55 to 160 160 to
3500
Severely errored
second ratio (SESR)
0.002 C 0.002 C 0.002 C 0.002 C 0.002 C
Where C is provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 7.5% to 8.5%. C = 0.075
is used unless otherwise specified by the customer.
ITU-T G.826

For example,

error performance objective for SDH (155 Mbps, link: 50 km)
= 0.002 (0.01 + 0.01) 50 / 500 60 60 24 30
= 10 sec/month.

A path fails to satisfy this Recommendation if any parameter exceeds
the allocated objective in either direction at the end of the given
evaluation period.

The suggested evaluation period is 1 month.
Availablilty-suggested evaluation period 1 month

Availability is the ratio of the time that the link is available to the total time.
Availability

Outage Time

Outage per year

99.9%

0.1%

9 hours

99.99%

0.01%

1 hour

99.999%

0.001%

5 minutes

99.9999%

0.0001%

30 seconds

The availability objective is defined as follows.
AR = 1- (B
j
L
link
/ L
R
+ C
j
)
where
j: section of national portion, j = {1 = access network, 2 = short haul, 3 = long haul}
L
R:
reference length = 2500 km.
The lower limit of L
link
used to scale the objectives is L
min
= 50 km.
Access
portion
Short-haul
portion
Long-haul portion
B1 C1 B2 C2 B3 C3
0 5 10
-4
0 4 10
-4
3 10
-3

for 250L
link
<2500 km
1.9 10
-3

for 50L
link
<250km
0
for 250L
link
<2500km
1.1 10
-4

for 50L
link
<250km
For example,
availability objective for
SDH (155 Mbps, link: 50 km)
= 1 (1.9 10
-3
50 / 2500 + 1.1 10
-4
)
= 0.999852.
Therefore,
unavailability = (1-0.999852) 60 + 24 365
= 77 min/year.
3. Determine frequency allocation plan
Choose a range of frequencies with appropriate radio characteristics that meet the
needs of your application according to the electromagnetic spectrum table
specified by the local radio agency. Selection criterion:
1) The signal at lower frequency propagates longer distance.
For example, 4GHz signal may reach as far as 100 km,
while 38 GHz is good for about 5 km.
2) Low frequency is more apt to interfere neighboring areas.
3) Higher frequency can achieve higher antenna gain.
4) Higher frequency has smaller Fresnel zone and thus require less clearance over
obstacles to avoid diffraction losses.
5) Higher bands have more bandwidth available for high-speed data,
and less probability of interference.
Check local radio-governmental regulation about frequency
ITU-R Recommdendation for microwave frequecy band:
Band 4G L6G U6G 7G 8G 11G 13G 15G 18G 23G 26G 38G
Scale 3.6~
4.2
5.9~
6.4
6.4~
7.1
7.1~
7.7
7.7~
8.5
10.7~
11.7
12.7~
13.2
14.5~
15.3
17.7~
19.7
21.1~
23.6
24.5~
26.5
37.0~
39.5


More details:

The various frequency characteristics are discussed as follows.

1) 7.125 8.5 GHz : low frequency is susceptible to multipath fading

2) 17.7 GHz 19.7 GHz : 18GHz band is a general-purpose point-to-point
microwave band, used mostly for shorter links (less than 20 km).

3) 21.2 23.6 GHz : 23 GHz band is a general-purpose point-to-point
band
which suffers additional (and variable) signal attenuation from water
vapor,
which limits its use to relatively short path lengths.

4) 27.5 GHz 29.5 GHz: 28 GHz is most susceptible to rain effect.

5) 37.0 GHz 39.5 GHz: At 38 GHz, there is a window of resonant
absorption
by water vapor, and can be used for communication.

4. Select equipment
Capacity/CH
/Subscribers
155Mbit/s
140Mbit/s(1920)
34Mbit/s*4(1920)
34Mbit/s*2(960)
Sub STM-1(480)
34Mbit/s*1(480)
2Mbit/s*16(480)
8Mbit/s*4(480)
8Mbit/s*2(240)
8Mbit/s*1(120)
2Mbit/s*4(120)
2Mbit/s*2(60)
2Mbit/s*1(30)
6/12CH
2048Sub.(max)
156Sub(max.)
2000/3000
700
770/2500
600/2300
PASOLINK
C6/C12
DRMASS/WLL
ARSS
Menu
NECs PP Microwave Radio Systems
Series/
Model
System Modulation
Frequency
Interface
4G L6 U6 7G 8G 11G 13G 15G 18G 23G 26G 28G 32G 38G
52
/55
/58G
V3/V4
PDH
4PSK
2,4,8,16x2MB
1x34MB
10/100Base-T(X)
Mx
PDH
4PSK/16QAM
selectable
5,10,20,40x2MB
10/100Base-T(X)
PDH 16QAM 8, 16x2MB
SDH
(STM-0)
32QAM
21x2MB
STM-1(P.F)
SDH
(STM-1)
32MLCM
STM-1/OC3
10/100Base-T(X)
SDH
(STM-1)
128QAM
STM-1/OC3
10/100Base-T(X)
SDH
(2xSTM-1)
128QAM
/ XPIC
STM-1/OC3
10/100Base-T(X)
64MLCM
STM-1
OC3
128MLCM
STM-1
OC3
3000S
3000S
(STM-1)
PASOLINK+
PASOLINK
PASOLINK
+


System Capacity



8 E1

16 E1

STM-0

STM-1

NB STM-1

Modulation Scheme



16 QAM

32 QAM

128 QAM

Channel Spacing (MHz)



7

14

55 or 56

28



PASOLINK
System Capacity



2 E1

4 E1

1 E2

8 E1

16 E1

1 E3

Modulation Scheme



4 PSK
Channel Spacing (MHz)



3.5

7

14

28

Choose the right equipments depending on required capacity

Outline of PASOLINK
0.6m Antenna
Outdoor unit(ODU)
Installation pole
Indoor unit(IDU)
Outline of PASO+
0.3m Antenna
Outdoor unit(ODU)
Installation pole
Indoor unit(IDU)
ODU IDU(1+1)
Pasolink Mx ODU & IDU
Same size as V4
IDU(1+0)
2U
1U
NEC SDH 3000S
3+1 SYSTEM
2 MB
MUX
MIC MIC
MUX MUX
2 MB
. . . .
MUX
[FOTS]
MUX MUX
2 MB
2 MB
2MB
[FOTS]
.

.

.


.

.

.


.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. . . . . .
SDH Application
STM-1 in series SYSTEM
[Terminal]
[UP/DOWN] [Relay]
Fiber circuit protected
MIC MIC MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC MIC MIC MIC MIC
MSC : Mobile Switchover Center
BSC : BTS Controller
BTS : Basic Transmitting System
BSC
MSC
PSTN
BSC
.....
MSC
2000S
BSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
PASOLINK
PASOLINK
BTS
PASOLINK
BTS
BTS
BTS
2500S/
2000S
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
2500S/
2000S
2500S/
2000S
2500S/
2000S
Configuration in mobile network
BSC
PSTN
BSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
Pasolink
Pasolink
BTS
Pasolink
BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
Pasolink
PASO-S
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
PASO-S
PASO-S
PASO-S
MSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
Configuration in mobile network
PASOLINK MX APPLICATION
Router
LAN
10/100BASE-T(X)
PASOLINK Mx
PDH/SDH/AT
M
Network
IP (private)
Network
n x E1
10/100BASE-T(X)
n x E1
IP
Phone
DAT
A
Router
PABX
TEL


FA
X
DAT
A
TV
CON
F.
Broadband
Network
PDH/SDH/AT
M
Network
5E1
10E1
20E1
Node-B/BTS
Node-B/BTS
Node-B/BTS
40 E1
Node-B/BTS
40 E1
PASOLINK Mx
(Tree)
PASOLINK Mx
(Star)
PASOLINK Mx
(Trunk)
Node-B/BTS
Node-B/BTS
Node-B/BTS
Node-B/BTS
5E1
5E1
5E1
5E1

































Edge
Termina
l
2,4E1
Tree
Nod
e
4E1
16E1
16E1
Edge
Terminal
Star
Nod
e
4E1
4E1
Trunk Line
SDH
Ring
32E1
STM-1 or
32E1
STM-1
8E1
2,4E1
2,4E1
Types of Mobile Backhaul Network
downtow
n
M25
Countryside
motorway
M1
M25
M2
M4
M3
M23
Mobile celluar Plan of London(downtown)
P-P Microwave Application
Area
downtow
n
M25
countryside
motorway
MSC-MSC
Applicable system Radius of cell
100m~1k
m
1~5km
5km ~
serial
relay
Pasolink 38GHz
Pasolink 15~38Ghz
Pasolink 8~23GHz
Pasolink 2*2~16*2MB
2500S 34MB
2500S 4*2~16*2MB
2000S 140MB/ STM-1
2000S 140MB/STM-1
Network configuration-One Hop system

Network configuration-Multi- Hop system
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
SDH RI NG
STM-1
IDU IDU
STM-0/
STM-1
STM-0/
PDH
IDU
IDU
IDU
IDU
IDU
IDU
IDU
IDU
IDU
IDU
Network configuration-Ring system

Mux
back to
back
back to
back
back to
back
Network configuration-Multi-branch system
5. Link budget analysis
Path Clearance Criteria
A
B
h
1
h
2
d
d
1
d
2
hp
hc
hs
M
F
h3
h4
h5
h6
H
1 :
Antenna elevation at site A(above sea lever:m) h
1
= h
3
h
4

h
2 :
Antenna elevation at site B(above sea level:m) h
2
= h
5
h
6

H
3 :
Antenna elevation at site A(from the ground:m)
h
4 :
Site elevation at site A(above sea level:m)
H
5
: Antenna elevation at site B(from the ground:m)
h
6 :
Site elevation at site B(above sea level:m)
h
S :
Ridge elevation(above sea level:m) h
C
Path clearance at ridge point(m)
d
1 :
Distance of near end of path(m) d
2
Distance of far end of path(m)
d : Total distance per hop(m)
1 Path clearance at ridge point:hc



rActual earth radius 6.3710
6
m
kEffective earth radius coefficient

2 Radius of first fresnal zone (m)



wave lengthm

3 Path clearance margin: h
cm
(m)


h
cm
should be bigger than zero to obtain the necessary clearance margin.

4 Clearance criteria
-For main antenna
a. Radio Frequency less than 7GHz b. Radio Frequency more than 7GHz
1.0F at K=4/3 1.0F at K4/3
0.4F at K2/3 (When flat terrain) 0.577F at K2/3 (When flat terrain)
0F at K2/3 (When obstacle is ridge) 0F at K2/3 (When obstacle is ridge)
0.3F at K2/3 (When obstacle is not ridge) 0.3F at K2/3 (When obstacle is not ridge)
hc h
d
d
h h
d d
kr
hs m =

1
1
1 2
1 2
2
( ) ( )
F
d d
d
=
1 2
hcm hc a F =
Microwave
links
2.06
CLEARANCE
Clearance rules
a) 1st Fresnel ellipsoid fully free for
b) Direct ray between antennas not stopped by geographical
relief for K minimum value
(K depends of the local climatic conditions and hop length)

4
3
K =
AN Refractive index
gradient
1 st Fresnel ellipsoidal
Rx
Tx
Tx'
Virtual earth
Ro
Real earth
R
A
M
B
K = =
R
Ro
157
157+AN
(AM+MB-AB = /2)
Fresnel zone
(possible reflection)
Microwave
links
2.18
LINK BUDGET
Antenna
G1
Waveguide
Branching (filters + circulators)
Transmit power: Pe dBm Receive power: Prn dBm
G2
Free Space Attenuation:
Range between Tx/Rx
Rx
Tx
Prn (dBm) = Pe (dBm) + G1 (dB) + G2 (dB) - F.S.A. (dB) - Losses (dB) (Waveguides + Branching)
4 H D
20 log

D meters
L
fs
= 96.6 + 20*log
10
F + 20* log
10
D
L
fs
= free space loss in dB
F = frequency in GHz
D = path length, in miles
or
L
fs
= 32.4 + 20*log
10
F + 20* log
10
D
L
fs
= free space loss in dB
F = frequency (GHz)
D = path length, in kilometers
Link Budget AnalysisFade Margin
Flat fade margin = Receive signal level Receiver sensibility threshold
Receiver Signal Level = P
tx
L
tx
+ G
tx
L
fs
+ G
rx
L
rx

P
tx
: transmitter output power
L
fs
: free space path loss
G
tx
: transmitter antenna gain
G
rx
: receiver antenna gain
L
tx
: transmitter feeder loss
L
rx
: receiver feeder loss


P
Re
=Equivalent Rayleigh fading occurrence factor

F
1
=Fading margin
( ) P P dB
F
1
10
10
1
=

Re
Link Budget AnalysisUnavailability
FFrequency in GHz
dhop distance in km
KQB and C are given below.
( ) K Q F d
B c

Path condition

KQ

B

C
Mountain(Re<0.5)

1.07210
-4
1

1.30
Hill(0.5<Re<0.7)

2.7510
-5
1

1.80
Plain(Re>0.7)

2.88410
-5
1

2.20
Sea

2.63010
-6
1

3.20

Reeffective reflection coefficient
P
Re
=
STM-1, 18G, Rain=28mm/h, Antenna=60cm
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Hop Length (km)
U
n
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
%
)
128Q
32Q
Enter Customer Data
Does calculated
clearance satisfy
specification?
Calculate Fade margin
Calculate unavailability
Does availability meet
customers requirement?

Required data rate
Desired BER
Hop length
Frequency
Adjust antenna height
Install repeater stations
Calculate
Path loss
Modify antenna diameter,
frequency band, or distance
between hops
Path profile
Calculate Receiver
input level
No
Yes
No
Yes
BOQ