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Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization

Epithelia - 1 of 4 tissues of the body Characteristics

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cellularity (cell junctions) Polarity (apical and basal surfaces) Attachment (basal lamina) Avascularity Regeneration (Epithelia are replaced by division of germinative cells (stem cells)near basal lamina) -

1. 2. 3. 4.

Provide physical protection Control permeability Provide sensation Produce specialized secretions (glandular epithelium)


Specializations of Epithelial Cells

1. Move fluids over the epithelium (protection) 2. Move fluids through the epithelium (permeability) 3. Produce secretions (protection and messengers)

Epithelial Characteristic - Polarity :

apical -outer layer permeable to water-soluble molecules polar, hydrophilic region basolateral surfaces - inner layer impermeable to watersoluble molecules - nonpolar, hydrophobic region

Increasing Surface Area

Microvilli increase absorption or secretion Cilia (ciliated epithelium) move fluids
Figure 41

Cell Junctions
Form bonds with other cells or extracellular materialtight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes

Tight Junctions
Between 2 cell membranes Adhesion belt attaches to terminal web Prevents passage of water and solutes Isolates wastes in the lumen

Allow rapid communications Held together by channel proteins (junctional proteins, connexons) Allow ions to pass Coordinated contractions in heart muscle

Gap Junctions

Figure 42c

CAMs, dense areas, and intercellular cement

Button desmosomes Ties cells together Allow bending and twisting

Figure 42d

Hemidesmosomes how attached to basal lamina Lamina lucida:

thin layer secreted by epithelia barrier to proteins

Lamina densa:
thick fibers produced by connective tissue strength and filtration

Figure 42e

Classes of Epithelia - based on shape and layers Simple epithelium - single layer of cells Stratified epithelium - several layers of cells Shapes
Squamous epithelia-flat shaped Cuboidal epithelia - square shaped Columnar epithelia - tall shaped

Table 41

Squamous Epithelia (2)

Simple squamous epithelium -absorption & diffusion
Mesothelium - lines body cavities Endothelium - lines heart and blood vessels

Stratified Squamous Epithelium - protects against attacks

Keratin proteins add strength and water resistance

Cuboidal Epithelia (2)

Simple cuboidal epithelium - secretion & absorption Kidney tubules

Stratified cuboidal epithelia - sweat and mammary ducts

Columnar Epithelia (3)

Simple columnar epithelium absorption & secretion
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium - cilia

Stratified columnar epithelium protection

Glandular Epithelia - Endocrine & exocrine glands Endocrine Glands Release hormones into interstitial fluid; no ducts Exocrine Glands Produce secretions onto epithelial surfaces; through ducts
Figure 46

Modes of Secretion
Merocrine secretion
Are produced in Golgi apparatus Are released by vesicles (exocytosis) e.g., sweat glands

Are produced in Golgi apparatus Are released by shedding cytoplasm e.g., mammary gland

Apocrine secretion

Holocrine secretion
Are released by cells bursting, killing gland cells Gland cells replaced by stem cells e.g., sebaceous gland

Figure 46a

Connective - 2 of 4 tissues of the body Function

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connect epithelium to the rest of the body (basal lamina) Provide structure (bone) Store energy (fat) Transport materials (blood) Have no contact with environment

1. Specialized cells 2. Solid extracellular protein fibers 3. Fluid extracellular ground substance

Classification of Connective Tissues (3)

Connective tissue proper:connect and protect Fluid connective tissues:transport Supportive connective tissues:structural strength

Connective Tissue Proper Categories

Loose connective tissue:more ground substance, less fibers e.g., fat (adipose tissue) Dense connective tissue:more fibers, less ground substance e.g., tendons

Fibroblasts most abundant cell type-in all connective tissue proper & secrete proteins & hyaluronan (cellular cement) Macrophages-large, amoeba-like cells of the immune system: eat pathogens and damaged cells, fixed macrophages stay in tissue, free macrophages migrate Adipocytes-fat cells-each cell stores a single, large fat droplet Mesenchymal Cells -stem cells that respond to injury or infection: differentiate into fibroblasts, macrophages, etc. Melanocytes -synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin Mast Cells -stimulate inflammation after injury or infection:release histamine and heparin Basophils are mast cells carried by blood Lymphocytes-specialized immune cells in lymphatic system: e.g., plasma cells which produce antibodies Microphages -phagocytic blood cells: respond to signals from macrophages and mast cells, e.g., neutrophils and eosinophils

8 Cell Types of Connective Tissue Proper

Fibers in Connective Tissue Proper

Collagen fibers:
most common fibers in CTP, strong and flexible resists force in 1 direction, e.g., tendons and ligaments

Reticular fibers:
network of interwoven fibers (stroma), strong and flexible resists force in many directions, e.g., sheaths around organs contain elastin, return to original length after stretching e.g., elastic ligaments of vertebrae

Elastic fibers:

Ground Substance in Connective Tissue Proper

In connective tissue proper and ground substance:
is clear, colorless, and viscous fills spaces between cells and slows pathogens

The packing materials of the body 3 types in adults: areolar, adipose, reticular
Areolar Tissue - Least specialized, Elastic fibers, Holds blood vessels and capillary beds (e.g., under skin (subcutaneous layer)) Adipose Tissue White fat:most common, stores fat, slows heat loss (insulation) Brown fat: more vascularized, breaks down fat, produces heat Reticular Tissue - Supportive fibers (stroma) that support functional cells, reticular organs: spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

Loose Connective Tissues

Dense Connective Tissues

Connective tissues proper, tightly packed with high numbers of collagen or elastic fibers:
dense regular connective tissue
Attachment and stabilization tendons, ligaments

dense irregular connective tissue

Interwoven networks of collagen fibers layered in skin, around cartilage, around bones, form capsules around some organs (e.g., liver, kidneys)

elastic tissue
made of elastic fibers elastic ligaments of spinal vertebrae

Fluid connective tissues:

Fluid Connective Tissues

blood and lymph watery matrix of dissolved proteins carry specific cell types (formed elements)

Support soft tissues and body weight:

gel-type ground substance for shock absorption and protection

Supportive Connective Tissues

calcified (made rigid by calcium salts, minerals) for weight support

Cartilage Matrix Proteoglycans, ground substance proteins, cells (chondrocytes) surrounded by lacunae (chambers) Cartilage Structure
No blood vessels:chondrocytes produce antiangiogenesis factor Perichondrium:outer, fibrous layer (for strength), inner, cellular layer (for growth and maintenance)

Types of Cartilage (3)

Hyaline cartilage, Elastic cartilage, Fibrocartilage

Hyaline cartilage:
stiff, flexible support reduces friction between bones found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, and trachea

Elastic cartilage:
supportive but bends easily found in external ear and epiglottis

Limits movement Prevents bone-to-bone contact Pads knee joints Found between pubic bones and intervertebral discs

Also called osseous tissue:

strong (calcified: calcium salt deposits) resists shattering (flexible collagen fibers)


Bone Cells - Osteocytes: Periosteum:

arranged around central canals within matrix small channels through matrix (canaliculi) access blood supply

covers bone surfaces fibrous layer cellular layer

How do epithelial and connective tissues combine to form 4 types of membranes?

Membranes - are physical barriers that line or cover portions of the body consisting of an epithelium and supported by connective tissues 4 Types of Membranes

1. Mucous 2. Serous
3. Cutaneous 4. Synovial

Mucous membranes (mucosae):

line passageways that have external connections also in digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts

Mucous Tissues
Epithelial surfaces must be moist to reduce friction, to facilitate absorption and excretion Lamina propria is areolar tissue

Line cavities not open to the outside Are thin but strong Have fluid transudate to reduce friction Serous membranes: double, have a parietal portion covering the Pleural membrane lines pleural cavities covers lungs cavity and a Peritoneum lines peritoneal visceral portion cavity covers abdominal organs (serosa) covering Pericardium lines pericardial the organs cavity covers heart

Serous Membranes

Cutaneous membrane:
is skin, surface of the body thick, waterproof, and dry

Line articulating (moving) joint cavities Produce synovial fluid (lubricant) Protect the ends of bones Lack a true epithelium

Synovial Membranes

How do connective tissues form the framework of the body?

Connective tissues:
provide strength and stability maintain positions of internal organs provides routes for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves

the bodys framework of connective tissue layers and wrappings that support or surround organs

3 Types of Fasciae
Superficial fascia

Subserous fascia Deep fascia

Figure 417

What are the structures and functions of the three types of muscle tissue?

3 Types of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal muscle:
large body muscles responsible for movement

Cardiac muscle:
found only in the heart

Smooth muscle:
found in walls of hollow, contracting organs (blood vessels; urinary bladder; respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts)

Classification of Muscle Cells

Striated (muscle cells with a banded appearance):
or nonstriated (not banded)

Muscle cells can have a single nucleus:

or be multinucleate

Muscle cells can be controlled voluntarily (consciously):

or involuntarily (automatically)

Skeletal muscle cells:

Striated, voluntary, and ultinucleated are long and thin are usually called muscle fibers do not divide new fibers are produced by stem cells (satellite cells)

Figure 418a

Cardiac muscle cells:

are called cardiocytes form branching networks connected at intercalated disks are regulated by pacemaker cells striated, involuntary, and single nucleus

Smooth muscle cells:

are small and tapered can divide and regenerate nonstriated, involuntary, and single nucleus

What is the basic structure and role of neural tissue?

Neural tissue is concentrated in the central nervous system:
brain spinal cord

1. Neurons:

2 Kinds of Neural Cells

nerve cells perform electrical communication support cells repair and supply nutrients to neurons

2. Neuroglia:

Cell Parts of a Neuron Cell body:

contains the nucleus and nucleolus

Dendrites: Axon (nerve fiber):

short branches extending from the cell body receive incoming signals
long, thin extension of the cell body carries outgoing electrical signals to their destination


Figure 419