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Emotion
1. Meaning 2. Nature 3. Types 4. Development and differentiation of emotions

1. Meaning of Emotion
1. Meaning : The word emotion is derived form Latin word emovere which means to stir up, to mobilize, to excite. Emotion disturbs the physical and psychological state (behavior) of the individual. Emotional behavior is observable to others. 2. Emotion is one of the most difficult concepts in Psychology to define. Literally emotion means any of the particular feelings that characterize such a state of mind, such as joy, anger, love, hate, horror, etc. A simple definition of emotion is that it is a response by a whole organism, involving (1) physical arousal (biological arousal increased heart rate, sweating, breathing etc.), (2) expressive behaviors (behavioral expression both verbal and non-verbal like gesture, voice tone, body movement, facial expression), and (3) conscious experience (mental evaluation or thought).

Emotion
An emotion can at once be - i) a response to a situation (fear threat) ii) have motivating properties ( anger- aggression) iii) can also be a goal. Emotion is a reaction that is both psychological and physical in nature. Emotion is experienced subjectively as strong feelings. Most of the emotion prepares the body for immediate action. An emotion is a response to an internal or external event. Definition: Miller and Buckhout Emotion is any experience of strong feeling, usually accompanied by bodily change in circulation, breathing, sweating, etc., and often accompanied by tense and impulsive actions.

Emotion
James Drever: Emotion is a complex state of the organism involving bodily changes of a widespread character in breathing, pulse, gland etc. and on the mental side a state of excitement or perturbation (unrest, disturbance) marked by strong feeling and usually an impulse towards a definite form of behavior. Each emotion is a feeling and each is at the same time a motor set. Emotion has a psychological origin but it affects or disturbs physiological system. The person is conscious of emotion and usually expresses the feelings of emotion through behavior. Usually feeling and behavior are closely related to bodily changes.

2. Nature of Emotion
Emotion have certain nature or characteristics which can be described as follow: - Emotions are Universal (prevalent to every living organism, all stage of development from infancy to old age.) - Emotional experiences are personal and thus differ from individual to individual. - Emotions rise all of a sudden & decrease slowly. - Emotions are aroused by stimuli, object or situation. - Emotions have the quality of displacement. ( angriness at office and beating children at home) - The core of emotion is feeling. - Same emotions can be aroused by a number of different stimuli objects and situations. - An emotion can give birth to a number of other similar emotions.

Nature.
- Every emotional experience involves many physical and physiological changes in the organism.

3. Types of emotions
Emotion can be broadly divided into two types : 1) Positive emotion: The emotion that create pleasantness are called positive emotion and (happiness, joy) 2) Negative emotion : The emotion that create unpleasantness are called negative emotion. (sorrow, anger) Another division of emotions are : 1) Primary emotions (biologically based and are to be considered to be universal) (Ekman 6 primary emotionsfear, anger, happiness, sadness, disgust and surprise) (Plutchik 8 primary emotions fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation (expectation), joy, acceptance)

Types of emotion
2. Secondary emotions : Emotions that are either blends of primary emotion i.e. combination of 2 primary emotions or that specific to certain cultures. Each pair of primary emotions can be mixed to yield 3rd more complex emotion. Plutchiks model of emotion:

4. Development of emotion
Development of emotion: Like behavioral development, emotional development is also determined by genetics and learning. The person matures based on genes and learning from the environment. Therefore, maturity and learning play important roles in emotional development. ( Children start crying from birth, after sometime they start laughing & with age expresses other emotions these are develop and are expresses with the environment and as the person mature.) Theory of emotion: 1. James-lange Theory 2. Cannon-bard Theory 3. Schachler- Singer Theory 4. Opponent-process Theory

Motivation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Meaning and concept of motives Types of motives Hierarchy of motives Conflict of motives Frustration, stress & coping of emotions as motives

Motive : Motive is a general name given to the needs, wants and desires of organism. Motives are internal sources of behavior of organism. Our thinking, feeling, actions are determined by both environment and motives. When a motive become active, the organism is said to be motivated. Motivation is thus a process of arousal of motive.

Motivation
Meaning & concept of motivation :

Several hundred words refers to motivation: wants, striving, desire, need, motive, goal, aspiration, drive, wish, aim, ambition, hunger, thirst, love, revenge to name a few. The term motivation literally means to move or to energize or to activate. Anything that is responsible for internal or external activity may be called motivation. Motivation is considered as goal directed behavior.

Motivation
Motivation is something that urges the individual to do something. The term motivation is derived from Latin word Movere literal meaning of which is to move. It indicates that motivation gives the dynamism to behavior. In this sense all behaviors are motivated activities. Motivation is defined as the conditions which initiate, guide, and maintain behaviors, usually until a goal has been reached or response has been blocked. Our motivation determines the direction, strength and continuity of our behavior.

Motivation Cycle
There are 4 aspects of motives: 1. Need 2. Drive 3. Incentive 4. Reward

Motivation Cycle
1. Need: It is the lack of what we want. When the stimuli remains constant we dont feel need. For example, the person who is hungry needs food. Similarly, a person may desire for power. This shows motivational need has two categories: physiological (primary) or psychological (secondary). Physiological needs are basic necessities without which organism cant live, for example need for food, rest, oxygen, water etc. psychological need are related to the individual happiness and wellbeing. For example, love, power, prestige, recognition, status etc. 2. Drive: an internal motivational state that is created by a need is a drive. For example, a hungry person seeks for food to satisfy his or her need. Drives are the action oriented component or the motion to fulfill the desire of the motivated behavior. Search for food by a hungry person can be translated into hunger drive. Drive can activate more than one response. Drive is the internal tension state that builds up until they are satisfied.

Motivational Cycle
3. Incentive: the third concept, incentive is the appropriate object or situation toward which motivated behavior is directed. Incentive eases a need and reduces a drive. It can provide satisfaction for the aroused drive. For example, food is the incentive for the hungry person. It can be anything we have learned to value like money, status, and the approval of the others. Incentives control much of human behavior. An organism will approach positive incentive, and avoid negative incentives. For example cooked food is the positive incentive for the hungry person and chocolate is negative incentive as it will not satisfy the hunger of the person. Incentive either directs behavior towards or away forms them. 4. Reward: once the organism has obtained the incentive it drives pleasantness or satisfaction, which is the reward.

Characteristics of Motivation
1. Motivation is a process. It starts with need and completes with the fulfillment of need. 2. Motivation is the cause behind all behaviors of organism. All behavior is motivated activity. 3. Motivation maintains our behavior as well as gives direction to our behavior. 4. Strength of individuals behavior is directly proportional to the strength of motivation. 5. The motive may be biological or psychological. 6. If the goal seeking behavior in motivation is blocked it results in frustration.

Types of Motives
Motives can be classified into two parts : 1) Primary Motives & 2) Secondary Motives 1) PRIMARY MOTIVES (Physiological or biological): These motives are biological in origin and are important for survival. These motives are very strong in determining individuals behavior. The most important primary motives are hunger, thirst, sex, need for sleep, regulation of body temperature and waste etc. a) Hunger motivation (motive) : It is regulated by biological mechanism to a large extent. (We feel hungry when our insulin (a chemical substance produced in the body that control the amount of sugar in the body) level increase suddenly in our body. Increase in insulin results in decrease in the level of blood sugar. This in turn signals hunger. Hypothalamus of brain, hormone called leptin is also involved in hunger motivation. Fat cells in body secrets leptin and release it into the blood. When the leptin level in the blood is high, hunger decrease). Apart from these biological factors learning, habits, cultural attitudes, stress also play role in regulation of hunger.

Types of Motivation

b) Thirst Motivation: It is also regulated by biological mechanism. Some psychologists propose that thirst is regulated by dryness of mouth and throat. Others purpose that dehydration leads to thirst. Apart from these factors hormone called antidiuretic secreted by kidney also plays role in maintaining the level of water in body. Hypothalamus of brain is also responsible for regulation of thirst motive. Besides these factors our habit, cultural factors, advertisement etc. also play role in regulation of thirst.

Types of Motivation
c) Sex motivation: It is not essential for individuals survival but essential for survival of species. Due to this reason it is included in primary motive. In animal this motive is regulated by biological factors to a large extent. However this is not so in case of human beings. Human sexual drive is equally regulated by both biological factors like hormones, and brain activities and psychological factors like presence of stimulating factor, physical contact. Hypothalamus of brain, sex hormones play vital role in regulating sex motive. Socio-cultural factors and social factors presence of sex arousing stimuli like erotic picture and fantasy also plays vital role in sexual arousal.

Types of Motivation
d) Sleep motive: Sleep is essential for healthy life. Sleeping is required when the individual is tired. Due to continuous work, the muscles accumulate latic acid. Most probably this stimulates certain receptors and the person wants to take rest by the way of sleep. Neurotransmitters controls whether we are asleep or awake by acting on different groups nerve cells or neurons in the brain. Habit, the food we eat and sleep of roommates also play role in sleep.

Types of Motivation
2. SECONDARY MOTIVES: It is also known as social, acquired or learned motives. These motives are not essential for survival and are learned through social interaction. Achievement, power, affiliation and approval are some examples of secondary motives. a) Achievement motive: It is the desire of mastery, excellence and accomplishment. It is regarded as a central human motivation. b) Power Motive: It refers to the need to dominate others. It is the desire to have social impact and control over others. c) Affiliation motive: It is the type of motivation involving a need to seek out and enjoy close cooperative relationship with other people and to adhere and remain loyal to a friend. d) Approval motive: It refers to the need to seeking of others acceptance for what individual does.

Hierarchy of motives (theory of motives)


Theory of motivation : 1. Instinct Theory (Mc Dougall, Freud) : (instinct means a natural
tendency for organism to behave in a particular way using the knowledge and
abilities that were born with rather than thought or training) This

theory states that motivation is the result of biological, genetic. Instinct theorists define instinct as automatic, involuntary and unlearned behavior pattern consistently released by animal in presence of particular stimuli.

Hierarchy of motives (theory of motives)


2. Drive Reduction Theory ( Clark Hull) : Drive is internal state of unrest that energize goal directed behavior until the goal is achieved. According to this theory, all organism strive to reduce their needs and drive as much as possible. (curfew situation) That means motivation is aimed at reducing the drive state. Drive pushes individual to reduce it. Drive reduction primarily aims at restoration of homeostasis. (the process by which the body reacts to change in order to keep conditions inside the body e.g. temperature). Originally drive theory was focused on primary needs. Later on it is extended to other forms of behavior not so clearly linked to basic needs, such as drives for stimulation, status, achievement, power and forming stable social relationship. This theory seems to be adequate to some extent in describing biological drives, but does not satisfactorily explain psychological drives.

Hierarchy of motives (theory of motives)


3. MASLOWS HIRARCHY OF NEEDS : (Abraham Maslow- 1970)

Hierarchy of motives (theory of motives)


Maslows hierarchy of need behavior is influenced by a hierarchy of five classes of needs motives: 1) Physiological needs: Physiological needs like food, water, shelter, oxygen, sleep are necessary for survival. 2) Safety & Security needs : When basic needs are fulfilled individuals safety and security needs dominate. Needs for feeling safe, secure and stability in ones life are safety needs. An individual in this need hierarchy seeks for safety from physical or psychological harm. Care, money, job, pension etc. are some examples of security needs.

Hierarchy of motives (theory of motives)


3. Love and belongingness: These needs are also called social needs. An individual in this need hierarchy seeks for affiliation in some groups, wants to have friends and family and relationship. 4. Esteem needs: When social needs are fulfilled he is guided by the need for self respect i.e. self esteem. At this level he seeks for status, identity, respect, success etc. 5. Needs for self actualization: When all above needs are fulfilled individual may pass to actualization needs. Actualization refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely to the tendency for individual to become actualized in what he is potentially. In this hierarchy, the individual is self fulfilled, can recognize ones own potentials, they are devoted for entire human welfare etc. these individuals are fully functioning persons, according to Maslow.

Hierarchy of motives (theory of motives)


- The needs through basic needs to esteem needs are called deficiency need because these needs are supposed to be the result of physical or psychological deficit. - Self actualization need is called growth need because at this level psychological growth of individual begins. Maslow has argued that only about 1% of people can reach self actualized level. Roosevelt, Einstein, Abraham Lincon are some examples of self actualized people. - Maslow believed that people in different need hierarchy behave differently and argued that lower order needs are stronger and have great impact in behavior than higher order needs.

Hierarchy of motives (theory of motives)


4. Cognitive theories of motivation: Motivation is the product of peoples thought, expectations and goals. There are many cognitive theories that attempt to explain motivation. 2 most influential cognitive theories are: a) Expectancy Value Theory : It assumes that behaviors result from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. b) Goal Setting Theory: Motivation is strongly influenced by goals. The motivation is largely depends on setting of goals. It is useful in business and industry in stimulating productivity.

Conflict of motives
Conflict of motives: conflict, in psychology, the arousal of two or more strong motives that cannot be solved together. A youngster, for example, may want to go to a dance to feel that he belongs to a group and does what his friends do. For an adolescent in Western culture, that is a strong motive. But the youth may be a clumsy dancer and sensitive to the real or imagined ridicule of his fellows. Therefore, he also has a motive to avoid the dance to escape humiliation. He is in a dilemma; whether he goes or stays he will experience distress. This type of situation is termed an approachavoidance conflict. Psychologically, a conflict exists when the reduction of one motivating stimulus involves an increase in another, so that a new adjustment is demanded.

Conflict of motives
Conflicts are often unconscious, in the sense that the person cannot clearly identify the source of his distress. Many strong impulsessuch as fear and hostilityare so much disapproved by the culture that a child soon learns not to acknowledge them, even to himself. When such impulses are involved in a conflict, the person is anxious but does not know why. He is then less able to bring rational thinking to bear on the problem.

Conflict of motives
Conflicts are not all equally severe. A conflict between two desired gratifications (approach-approach conflict), as when a youth has to choose between two attractive and practicable careers, may lead to some vacillation but rarely to great distress. A conflict between two dangers or threats (avoidance-avoidance conflict) is usually more disturbing. A man may dislike his job intensely but fear the threat of unemployment if he quits. A conflict between a need and a fear may also be intense. A child may be dependent on his mother but fear her because she is rejecting and punitive. The conflicts that involve intense threat or fear are not solved readily but make the person feel helpless and anxious. Subsequent adjustments may then be directed more to the relief of anxiety than to the solution of real problems.

Conflict of motives
Conflict of motivation: The process of fulfilling needs is not always easy. When a person has differing needs and desires, conflict arises. The person has to choose either the need or the desire and decision is not easy. Both may be attractive, important and able to satisfy. These kinds of situation arise in a persons life often, causing conflict and hence frustration. Cause of conflict: - Conflict arises where we are faced with two or more incompatible (mismatched) demands, opportunities, needs or goals, - Someone who is simultaneously attracted to two incompatible goals experiences an approach / approach conflict, in which the person must make choice between the two goals. - The reverse of this problem is avoidance/ avoidance conflict, in which a person confronts two undesirable or threatening possibilities. People usually try to escape this kind of conflict or be indecisive between the two possibilities. - Also difficult to resolve is an approach/ avoidance conflict, in which a person is both attractive to and repelled by the same goal or opportunity.

Frustration
- Frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where a person is blocked from reaching a desired outcome. In general, whenever we reach one of our goals, we feel pleased and whenever we are prevented from reaching our goals, we may surrender to frustration and feel irritable, annoyed and angry. Typically, the more important the goal, the greater the frustration and resultant anger or loss of confidence. - Frustration is not necessarily bad since it can be a useful indicator of the problems in a person's life and, as a result, it can act as a motivator to change. However, when it results in anger, irritability, stress, esentment, depression, or a spiral downward where we have a feeling of resignation or giving up, frustration can be destructive.

Frustration
What causes frustration? Frustration is experienced whenever the results (goals) you are expecting do not seem to fit the effort and action you are applying. Frustration will occur whenever your actions are producing less and fewer results than you think they should. The frustration we experience can be seen as the result of two types of goal blockage, i.e. internal and external sources of frustration. Response to frustration : Some of the "typical" responses to frustration include anger, quitting (burn out or giving up), loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, stress and depression.

stress Stress: A psychological and physical response of the body that occurs whenever we must adapt to changing conditions, whether those conditions be real or perceived, positive or negative. Although everyone has stress in their lives, people respond to stress in different ways. Some people seem to be severely affected while others seem calm, cool, and collected all the time. Regardless, we all have it. It's also important to note that there are two types of stress, good stress and not so good stress.

Coping of emotion as motives


A coping skill is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage, or disability. Distraction - just as the name implies, distraction is anything you do to temporarily take your attention off of a strong emotion. Sometimes, focusing on a strong emotion can make it feel even stronger and more out of control. Therefore, by temporarily distracting yourself, you may give the emotion some time to decrease in intensity, making it easier to manage.

Coping emotion as motives

Coping of emotions as motives


Some technique to cope with stress: Count backwards from a large number by sevens or some other number (for example, 856, 849, 842, 835, etc.). Take part in a fun and challenging game that requires some level of attention, such as a crossword puzzle or Sudoku. Focus your attention on your environment. Name all the colors in the room. Try to memorize and recall all the objects that you see in a room. Do something creative. Draw a picture or build a model. Do some tasks, such as cleaning the house, doing laundry, or washing dishes. Read a good book or watch a funny movie. Call or write a letter to a good friend or family member. Exercise. Go out shopping (even if it is just window shopping). Try to come up with your own list of distraction activities that you can use when you experiencing a strong emotion that is difficult to cope with in the moment. The more you are able to come up, the more flexible you can be in coming up with the best activity depending upon the situation you are in.