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Data Communications Basics

Installation, Operations & Maintenance (IOM)

iDS v7.0 June 2007


Chapter 3

Copyright Notice
iDirect Technologies Technical Training Manual Copyright 2002; 2004 - 2007, iDirect, Inc. All rights reserved. This training material may not be reproduced, in part or in whole, without the permission of iDirect, Inc. All other brands or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. Printed in the USA. No part of this work covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without prior written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the copyright laws. This publication is provided by iDirect Technologies as-is without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties or conditions of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. iDirect Technologies shall not be liable for any errors or omissions which may occur in this publication, nor for incidental or consequential damages of any kind resulting from the furnishing, performance, or use of this publication. Information published here is current or planned as of the date of publication of this document. Because we are improving and adding features to our products continuously, the information in this document is subject to change without notice.
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Datacom Training Objectives


Describe different types of data traffic Real Time vs. non-Real Time Characteristics & processing different traffic types Discuss Packet Encapsulation and handling techniques Identify iDirect frame and packet structure formats Describe various optional iDirect efficiency features available Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) Timeslot Feathering Frequency Hopping vs. Carrier Grooming, etc. Forward Error Correction (FEC) Helps to provide error free delivery of data Discuss many important DataCom terms & principals IP, TCP, & UDP protocols Packet Header format and breakdown TCP Acceleration, or Spoofing Quality of Service (QoS) methodology Traffic Engineering as it relates to QoS
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Traffic Types Comparison


Voice/Video Traffic Characteristics
Real Time Protocol (RTP) Applications Time sensitive information
Sensitive to Delay and Delay Variation (Jitter) Deliver information in real-time or not at all Information content directly affected by delay (time)

Not sensitive to bit errors (uncompressed) Information never retransmitted Multi-media Applications & Image Processing

Data Traffic Characteristics


Not Real-time High Speed Data (very Error sensitive)
Not sensitive to Delay or Delay Variation Sensitive to even a single bit error (retransmissions) Information content unaffected by time (delay)

Very sensitive to bit errors Information retransmitted on bit error Large file transfer (ftp, etc.)
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Generic OSI Model


Layer 7 6 5 4 3

Open Source Interconnection (OSI) Model/Protocol Stack


APPLICATION Layer PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK
LLC Sublayer MAC Sublayer Performs common application services and supports end-user processes, (Telnet, FTP, e-mail, etc.).

HTML HTTP TCP/UDP

Provides services to the Application layer for syntactical differences in data representation within the end user systems. Manages interaction between end-user processes. Establishes check-pointing, adjournment, termination and restart procedures. Provides transparent transfer of data between end users. It ensures the method for accomplishing complete data transfer. Provides the functional & procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport layer. Performs network routing & error control functions. Provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities. Includes Media Access Control (MAC) layer, which controls network access & Logical Link Control (LLC) layer for frame sync, flow control and error checking. Establishes & terminates connection to a communications medium. It is the hardware layer providing physical means for sending and receiving data.

IP Data Link Layer Ethernet


MMF, SMF UTP, STP, Coax RF Frequency

Physical

Physical Media

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Ethernet Packet Encapsulation


TCP Packet (Layer 4) Packet (Application) Data

IP Packet (Layer 3)

Ethernet Packet (Layer 2)

Protocol Header * TCP, UDP, ICMP, etc.

IP Header

Ethernet Header

Layer 5

Layer 4

Layer 3

Layer 2

TCP Packet Information Field

IP Packet Information Field

Ethernet Packet Information Field

* Header = Overheard Data, not part of user data traffic added to the head of the packet

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CRC
6

Communications Concepts - SAR


Packet Arrival Time FTP Packets (1500 Byte)
5 4 3 2 2 1 1 2

SAR Segmentation and Reassembly

RF Out
c a b a 1

Dequeue
j i h g f ....... VoIP Packets (70 Byte)
n

a c

QoS Distributor SAR not enabled


Generic Ethernet Packet Structure considered

The Large FTP Packet may delay voice, other Real Time Protocol (RTP) in a congested state

FTP Packets (1500 Byte)


6 5 SAR k j i h g f e d c 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

RF Out

Dequeue
b a

VoIP Packets (70 Byte - default)

QoS Distributor

As packets are divided into equal sized packets, a voice packet has to wait a maximum of one burst.

SAR enabled (affixes small, 2 byte SAR header to each segment maintains QoS for each segment)

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Forward Error Correction (FEC) Overhead & Rate Conversions


The lower the selected FEC rate, the greater the number of FEC bits that will be required to support that rate
A lower rate requires a greater allowance for FEC overhead A lower rate provides better data integrity, albeit at the cost of available bandwidth A smaller VSAT reflector may be supported at the remote using lower FEC rates Consequently, a greater number of bits for FEC overhead reduces the user traffic payload in the affected data stream

Terminology - Data Rate Conversions


IP User Rate + iDirect Overhead = Info Rate
(TX) Info Rate / FEC Rate = Transmission Rate; (RX) Info Rate x FEC = Receive Rate Transmission or Receive Rate = Symbol Rate (BPSK) Transmission or Receive Rate / 2 = Symbol Rate (QPSK) Symbol Rate x 2 = Transmission or Receive Rate (QPSK) Symbol Rate x Channel Spacing = Allocated BW

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Anatomy of A Satellite Space Segment


Carrier Size* (DS 4.800 Mhz) (US 430 kHz)

Guard Band DS 400 kHz US 36 kHz

Guard Band DS 400 kHz US 36 kHz

IP Data Rate (DS 6.185 Mbps) (US 354 kbps)

Information Rate (DS 6.344 Mbps) (US 474 kbps)

L2 Overhead

Channel Rate or Transmission Rate QPSK Coding Bits (TPC) (DS 8.0 Mbps) DS 0.793 (US 718 kbps) US 0.660 * - Example Case Study, 1.25 Channel Spacing

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Protocol Structure Outroute


iDirect SCPC (Outroute) Protocol Structure
IP plus overhead
SOF

TPC
FEC

FEC .431 (1k) .533 (1k) .495 (4k) .793 (4k) .879 (16k)

Payload

53

73

66

60

251

259

404

106

1800

246

TAC/JL 051806

Payload is fraction of (or contiguous) IP packets including the following: 6 bytes of iDirect LL header per IP packet 2-9 bytes of Encryption header per IP packet (if enabled) 2 bytes of VLAN header per IP packet (if enabled) 2 bytes of CRC per IP packet

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EOF

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Protocol Structure Inroute


iDirect Inroute Protocol Structure
TDMA iDirect Header
DH Link Layer PAD

iDirect Trailer TPC


CRC FEC

TDMA

Payload
IP Payload

FEC .431 (1k) 0.533 (1k) 0.66 (1k) 0.793 (4k)

G B

Unique Word

G B

43

73

56

60

72

44

394

106

Demand Header (CIR Trigger, RT Demand, Total Demand)


TAC/JL 051806

Source HDLC, LL Controls

Packet Assembly & Disassembly (PAD) - controls TDMA burst efficiency

IP Payload is fraction of IP packets (continuous) including the following: 2-9 bytes of Encryption header per IP packet 2 bytes of VLAN header per IP packet 2 bytes of SAR header per SAR block

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Star TDMA vs. Mesh TDMA


iDirect Inroute Protocol (Star TDMA vs. Mesh TDMA) - .66 FEC example
iDirect Trailer TDMA iDirect Header
DH Link Layer PAD

TDMA TPC

Payload
IP Payload CRC

FEC

G B

Unique Word

FEC

G B

2 Additional bytes required for Mesh header

0.66 (1k) MESH 0.66

72

44

70

44

Demand Header (CIR Trigger, RT Demand, Total Demand)


TAC/JL 051806

Dest HDLC (MESH only), Source HDLC, LL Controls

Packet Assembly & Disassembly (PAD) - controls TDMA burst efficiency

IP Payload is fraction of IP packets (continuous) including the following: 2-9 bytes of Encryption header per IP packet 2 bytes of VLAN header per IP packet 2 bytes of SAR header per SAR block

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Inroute Frame Structure


iDirect Inroute Frame Structure

1 Slot

1 Slot

Inroute 1 Inroute 2 Inroute 3

Slot 1

Slot 2

Slot 3

Slot n

ACQ Slot

Slot 1

Slot 2

Slot 3

Slot n

ACQ Slot

Slot 1

Slot 2

Slot 3

Slot n

ACQ Slot

1 Frame (normally 125 msec) of an Inroute Carrier


TAC/JL 051806

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Time Slot Assignment - CG


Carrier Grooming Inroute Group
Burst Time

Allocated Time Slots per Remote

Inroute 1 Inroute 2 Inroute Group (1 or more Inroute Carriers) Inroute 3 Frequency


Rmt A Others

One Inroute Frame (125 msec Typical)

ACQ

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Time Slot Assignment - FH


Frequency Hopping Inroute Group
Burst Time

Allocated Time Slots per Remote

Inroute 1 Inroute 2 Inroute Group (1 or more Inroute Carriers) Inroute 3 Frequency


Rmt A Others

One Inroute Frame (125 msec Typical)

ACQ

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Feathering Timeslot Allocation


Bandwidth allocated to R1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 75

R1

VoIP Packets

VoIP Packets

VoIP Packets

Frame 1

Frame 2

Frame 3

Delay

Delay

Significant variation in delay causes jitter.

VoIP Packets

VoIP Packets

VoIP Packets

Frame 1

Frame 2

Frame 3

Delay

Minimal variation in delay significantly reduces jitter.

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Scheduled Dedicated Timeslot


Inroute TDMA Frame
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 75

R1 R2 R3

R5

Burstable Bandwidth (70 time slots available)

With the default configuration every remote is given a dedicated timeslot, in every frame. For ex., 5 Remotes using 5 Timeslots, with each remote getting a timeslot every frame.
Frame 4
6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Frame 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2

Frame 2
3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3

Frame 3
4 5

R1

R2

R3

R5

R6

R7

R8

R10

R1

R2

R3

R5

R6

R7

R8

R10

Etc. . .

If a remote is configured to have its dedicated time slot guaranteed once every 2 frames, then 10 remotes will need only 5 timeslots (maximum setting is one time slot every two seconds) This allows one to oversubscribe an inroute/inroute group at a much higher ratio Some example applications would be business continuity and low bandwidth networks that need a guaranteed amount of bandwidth
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 75

R1

R2

R3

R10

Burstable Bandwidth (remains 70 time slots)

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iDirect Hub Logic/Subnets


Upstream Router is the gateway device for all network throughput
Network (User) Traffic M&C (NMS) Traffic
IOM Team 8 Logic Diagram
Upstream ROUTER Eth0 interface IP: 192.168.8.1 Eth1 interface IP: 192.168.8.65 NMS Online Eth0 IP: 192.168.8.3

Upstream Switch 192.168.8.62 (Blue cables)

PP Blade 2 Eth0 IP: 192.168.8.6 Eth1 IP: 192.168.8.67


Chassis #1 (5IF) GEC-R3A10 Team5 Team6 Team7 Team8
M1D1-T.40700 M0D1.40516 M1D1-T.13091 empty slot 16

Upstream & Tunnel Typically full class C for each; minimum .248 subnet mask

Access via Table in Training Room A via Gray CAT5 Utility (NMS GUI) PC Eth0 IP: 192.168.0.dhcp

Upstream subnet = network traffic Tunnel subnet = Primary M&C traffic


Only Hub Line Cards are IPd with Tunnel subnet address HLC default Gateway = Upstream Router Tunnel Interface

IOM Chassis S/N: Sim. IP Addr:

N/A , 192.168.8.2

Slot 13 Tx/Rx ID: M1D1-T.40700 IP: 192.168.8.68 Slot 14 Rx only ID: M0D1.40516 IP: 192.168.8.69 Slot 15 Stdby ID: M1D1-T.13091 IP: 192.168.8.70
Subnet A (Upstream, or Eth0) 192.168.8.0/26 (SubNet Mask of Subnet B 255.255.255.192 for (Tunnel, or Eth1) both A & B subnets) 192.168.8.64/26 Date: April/07

Drawn By: R.Wilinski

Team 8 Network Logic Diagram

IOM Chapter 3 - DataCom Basics

Tunnel Switch1 192.168.8.126 (Gray cables)

Two subnets assigned for hub components

NMS Backup Eth0 IP: 192.168.8.4

PP Blade 1 Eth0 IP: 192.168.8.5 Eth1 IP: 192.168.8.66

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Internet Protocol (IP)


IP Protocol Connectionless Protocol
Specifies only Best Effort ; provides unreliable packet delivery
No retransmission of IP packets Packets discarded if network resources are insufficient

Source & Destination IP Facilities do not handshake Specifies the format of all data IP Software performs the routing function
Packets are treated independently Packets may take different paths through the network

IP Provides packet delivery service to Transport Layer protocols


IP provides common, consistent, universal addressing technique IP defines set of rules that embody packet transmission & delivery IP rules: Specify how routers should process packets (Routing, ToS, precedence, fragmentation) Specify when and how to generate error messages (ICMP) Conditions that govern discard and/or duplication of packets (multicast)
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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


TCP is a Connection Oriented protocol
Source and Destination MUST agree to the transmission and reception of information PRIOR to the transfer of user traffic
Destination must agree to receive the information Similar to a standard telephone call All transmissions are acknowledged

Provides guaranteed end to end delivery Dictates procedures to agree when transfer is complete
Specifies the format of the information Specifies acknowledgements that the information was received Specifies method to ensure information was received correctly

Retransmission IS REQUIRED if acknowledgement not received


in the event of a lost or corrupted packet

Determines how a machine distinguishes between multiple destinations Provides recovery from errors, or lost & duplicated packets Responsible for Flow Control TCP & IP operate over dial-up, LAN, Optic, high & low speed WANs
Satellite links (if inherent of round-trip latency can be overcome)
Successfully done when required acknowledgements are spoofed IOM Chapter 3 - DataCom Basics 20

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


TCP Multiplexes & Demultiplexes data to/from applications
Must be able to distinguish data flows between destinations TCP uses Port IDs & destination IP address to distinguish flow
A TCP Port is a queue into which TCP protocol places data-grams

TCP uses connection abstractions such as:


Source/Destination Port(s) Host Address:Port and/or Source Address:Port pairings
Source (65.168.20.1:100) Destination (10.10.200.1:200) Source and Destination pairing to identify a data flow

Requires only one local port to accommodate many data flows for many local applications

TCP (and UDP) encapsulates the data traffic, or IP Packet


IP Packets are the delivered packets (payload) IP Packets are the single packet that traverses the network
In a routed network Layer 2 packets live only point-to-point Ethernet Packets live only between adjacent ports
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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


TCP Connection Establishment
Host A TCP IP
LLC
Ethernet
UTP/STP MMF/SMF Port 1

Router 1 TCP/UDP IP
LLC
Ethernet
UTP/STP MMF/SMF Port 2

Host B TCP IP
LLC
Ethernet
UTP/STP MMF/SMF Port 1

LLC
Ethernet
UTP/STP MMF/SMF Port 1

LLC
Ethernet
UTP/STP MMF/SMF Port 2

LLC
Ethernet
UTP/STP MMF/SMF Port 2

SEND SYNC SYNC bit: Set Seq Num: Asn ACK bit: NOT Set RECV SYNC SYNC bit: Set Seq Num: Bsn ACK: Asn+1 SEND ACK Seq Num: Asn1 ACK: Bsn+1

RECV SYNC SYNC bit: Set Seq Num: Asn ACK bit: NOT Set SEND SYNC SYNC bit: Set Seq Num: Bsn ACK: Asn+1 RECV ACK Seq Num: Asn1 ACK: Bsn+1

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User Datagram Protocol


User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Connectionless Service Best Effort packet delivery service
How good is best?
Not guaranteed delivery No acknowledgements ever provided

Source sends information without respect to agreement by any destination to receive the information Similar to announcements over a public address system
If not received, missing transmissions are never resent

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TCP Acceleration
TCP Acceleration, or Spoofing defined TCP requires destination to acknowledge receipt of every packet
This can result in delay when Satellite round-trip LATENCY (~500msec) is introduced into the data path

iDirect solution acknowledges TCP packet receipt for the machine (or Host) that requested the information
Remote site thinks the iDirect customer has received packets and sends more data Sometimes referred to as Spoofing

iDirect remote tells Hub if it did not get a data packet


Faster data transmissions Increases overall data throughput Maximizes available bandwidth
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TCP/Web Acceleration
Impact of Satellite Delay
Web Server TCP Connection over Satellite (250msec one way) Client PC

~530 msec Round Trip Latency

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TCP/Web Acceleration
TCP Spoofed (Accelerated)
Web Server iDirect Hub
TCP Connection over Satellite

iDirect Remote

Client PC

Minimal Latency

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Quality of Service (QoS)


Quality of Service (QoS) Generically Defined
Providing CONSISTENT delivery of traffic across a network
QoS effort is to impart delay on data flows that can tolerate delay Reduce delay on those flows that can not tolerate delay

QoS is required due to different traffic characteristics such as


Real-time applications (VoIP, streaming video/audio) Real-time DATA applications non Real-time data applications Priority users - QoS applied to a connection rather than a packet Applies to all packets in that connection (data flow)

QoS is implemented by granting first (or early) access to the TRANSMIT Queue using one of three optional/configurable QoS methods
Priority Queuing Class Based Weighted Fair Queuing Best Effort Queuing

Type of Service (TOS) applies to specific packet (in IP header field)


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Quality of Service
QoS Implementations
Typically required to support Service Level Agreements (SLA) Provides ability to distinguish between different traffic types Designed to enable one user to be favored over another Implemented through the management of resources such as
Bandwidth allocation

Packet Loss, reliability


Latency and jitter

Will not eliminate or reduce network congestion


A heavily over-subscribed network may simply require more bandwidth to be allocated QoS capabilities will not improve service if host is overloaded

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Quality of Service
QoS at a higher level
Application QoS - Realtime classification & prioritization of traffic LAN Traffic Traffic prioritization can be performed using
Source and/or Destination IP Address Source and/or Destination IP Subnet Source and/or Destination Port Number Source and/or Destination Port Range Diffserv and ToS Bits VLAN ID Protocol (TCP, UDP, HTTP, ICMP, IGMP)
Service Queues

Satellite Configurable Queue Lengths For Each Service Level Network A percentage of bandwidth is assigned to each service level Configurable drop policy Traffic can be rate limited in both directions

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Network QoS
Network QoS Description
Hierarchical Prioritization Capability Most Flexible QoS Capability in Industry Most Comprehensive Prioritization Capability Network QoS - With CIR guarantees service at network level
Prioritize real-time traffic over non-real-time traffic across shared satellite bandwidth Allocates traffic demand for each remote appropriately
Network Inroute 1 Inroute 2 Inroute 3 Inroute 4

Prioritization

rt

nrt

rt

nrt

rt

nrt

rt

nrt

rt - Real-time Traffic (e.g. VoIP) nrt - Non-Real-time Traffic (e.g. FTP)

Prevents non real time traffic from one remote impacting Real Time Traffic on a different and unrelated remote IOM Chapter 3 - DataCom Basics 30

Quality/Class/Type of Service
Different Service Classifications Quality of Service
Capability to provide delivery of information across a network connection with consistent performance characteristics

Class of Service
The ability to establish categories of QoS (Gold, Silver, Bronze)

A method of specifying and grouping applications and traffic into QoS categories

Type of Service
Sometimes referred to as IP Precedence

Generally unused, but important QoS setting for iDirect Network Accelerator
Provides the ability to indicate to network devices that this packet should be afforded highly reliable transport (no drops) or low delay
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Traffic Engineering
Traffic Engineering as a QoS Management Tool Traffic Engineering is the umbrella terminology of network QoS
Designed to optimize the operation of communications networks

Traffic Engineering is composed of:


Measurement (post-deployment) Reporting (before, during & after deployment) Control (adjusting configuration parameters to optimize network)

Traffic Engineering is classified as:


Traffic Oriented
Quality of Service related issues Packet Loss Minimization Delay Minimization Throughput Maximization Enforcement of Service Level Agreements

Resource Oriented
Ensure areas of Network are properly utilized Limit the Under / Over Utilization of network areas Optimum Bandwidth Utilization Congestion Control
IOM Chapter 3 - DataCom Basics 32

Traffic Engineering
Traffic Engineering Revealed
Congestion Control - most important objective of Traffic Engineering
Permits enforcement of service level agreements

Traffic Engineering is designed to limit long duration Congestion Transient Congestion not addressed Primary causes of network congestion
Network resources insufficient to handle the load Traffic streams are inefficiently mapped to available resources

Insufficient network resources addressed by


Capacity Expansion Flow Control Techniques Rate Limiting Router Queue Management Window Flow Control

Efficient mapping of traffic flows addressed by Traffic Engineering Architecture and load balancing policies Traffic Engineering policies are implemented through other specifications
Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Differentiated Services (Diff-Serv)
IOM Chapter 3 - DataCom Basics 33

Data Communications Basics

Installation, Operations & Maintenance (IOM)

Thanks, . . .

iDS v7.0 June 2007

Questions? . . .

Chapter 3