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Past, Present, and Future of Mobile Computing

Yu Cai Department of Computer Science University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 1

Presentation outline

on mobile computing

of mobile computing of mobile computing

* GSM/GPRS/CDMA *Bluetooth


* Wireless LAN * Mobile IP

* Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

* PDA/SmartPhone/Laptop * Sensor/Zigbee Mesh

* Security


of mobile computing
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What is mobile computing?

Mobile computing is to describe technologies that

enable people to access network services anyplace, anytime, and anywhere, with portable and wireless computing and communication devices. --- (where is this referenced? Provide citation!) User mobility

Aspects of mobility

Between Between Between Between

different geographical locations different networks different communication devices different applications

Device portability

Between different geographical locations Between different networks

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Mobile Computing vs. Ubiquitous Computing/Pervasive Computing

Mobile Computing is a generic term describing the application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices. This includes devices like laptops with wireless LAN technology, mobile phones, wearable computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) with Bluetooth or IRDA interfaces, and USB flash drives. Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp, or sometimes ubiqcomp) integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. Another term for ubiquitous computing is pervasive computing. Promoters of this idea hope that embedding computation into the environment would enable people to move around and interact with computers more naturally than they currently do. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/


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Applications of mobile computing


transmission of news, road condition, weather, music via DAB personal communication using GSM position via GPS local ad-hoc network with vehicles close-by to prevent accidents, guidance system, redundancy vehicle data (e.g., from busses, high-speed trains) can be transmitted in advance for maintenance


Nurses/Doctors in Medical offices are now using Wireless Tablet PCs/WLAN to collect and share patient information. Sales representatives are using Tablet PCs with Smart phones for presentation, transmitting/access information among office, hotel, and customer location. Early transmission of patient data to the hospital, current status, first diagnosis Provide mobile infrastructure in dealing with Natural Disaster (earthquake, hurricane, fire), terrorist attacks, war, ...




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Natural evolution of computing

More Flexible Resource Usage

Mobile Computing
LANs + WorkStations


Single User OS Freedom from Collocation

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Challenges in mobile computing

Mobility means changes Hardware

Lighter, smaller, energy management, user interface Kbit/s to Mbit/s, bandwidth fluctuation Devices more vulnerable, endpoint authentication harder Different devices, interfaces and protocols Locality adaptation Connection setup time, hand-off Frequencies have to be coordinated
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Low bandwidth, high bandwidth variability Security risk Heterogeneous network

Location awareness

Higher loss-rates, higher delays, more jitter

Restrictive regulations of frequencies


History of wireless communication

1896 Guglielmo Marconi,

First demonstration of wireless telegraphy Based on long wave, requiring very large transmitters Huge ground stations: 30 x 100m antenna masts Cheaper, smaller, better quality transmitters by vacuum tube

1907 Commercial Trans-Atlantic Wireless Service

1920 Discovery of short waves by Marconi

1982 1983 1992 1997 1998

Start of GSM in Europe (1G analog) Start of AMPS in America (1G analog) Start of GSM (2G digital) Wireless LAN - IEEE802.11 Iridium satellite system
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66 satellites


History of wireless communication

1999 Standardization of additional wireless LANs IEEE standard 802.11b Bluetooth WAP (Wireless Application Protocol): access to many services via the mobile phone 2000 GSM with higher data rates (2.5G digital) HSCSD offers up to 57,6kbit/s First GPRS trials with up to 50 kbit/s 2001 Start of 3G systems IMT - 2000, several members of a family, CDMA2000 in Korea, UMTS tests in Europe
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Overview of mobile devices

Pager receive only tiny displays simple text messages

Smart phone voice, data simple graphical displays

Laptop fully functional standard applications

Sensors, embedded controllers

Wearable device human wearable non standard I/O

PDA graphical displays character recognition


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Overview of development
cellular phones
1981: NMT 450

1982: Inmarsat-A

cordless phones
1980: CT0 1984: CT1 1987: CT1+ 1989: CT 2 1991: DECT

wireless LAN

1983: AMPS

199x: proprietary 1997: IEEE 802.11 1999: 802.11b, Bluetooth 2000: IEEE 802.11a 2003: IEEE 802.11g 2007?: IEEE 802.11N


1986: NMT 900

1988: Inmarsat-C 1991: CDMA 1991: D-AMPS 1993: PDC 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M


1992: GSM

1994: DCS 1800

1998: Iridium 2000: GPRS 2001: IMT-2000

2.5G 3G


analogue digital
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20?? Fourth Generation?



Overview of wireless services

Data Rates 10 Mbps

Wireless LAN

1 Mbps

50 Kbps

Cellular: GSM, GPRS, CDMA,

10 Kbps Local

Wide Coverage Area Yu Cai/MTU Talk

Wireless LAN

IEEE 802.11 standard: a family of specifications for wireless LAN technology. The IEEE accepted the specification in 1997. 802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface between a AP: Access Point wireless client and a base station or between two AP wireless clients.
Wired 802.11: up AP to 2 Mbps in the Network 2.4 GHz band. AP 802.11b: up to 11 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11a/g: up to 54 Mbps in the 5/2.4 GHz band. 802.11n: up to 220+ Mbps in the 2.4/5 GHz band (two proposals not approved yet). Vendors already selling 802.11pre-n devices.

802.11 promises true vendor interoperability. Every vendor must have a viable 802.11 product strategy.
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Wireless LAN Security

WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy.

A basic wireless LAN security mechanism. Easy to set up, commonly used. Dont rely on WEP for wireless security. There are a number of flaws in the WEP.

Many wireless home networks dont even use WEP, which makes bad situation worse. MAC address based access control mechanism doesnt work. Use other security mechanisms such as VPN, PEAP and TTLS.

Research project on PEAP / TTLS in our research group in University of Colorado.

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Wireless Ad Hoc Network

Wireless Ad Hoc Network (peer to peer)

A collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network in a decentralized manner. No infrastructure, no default router available every node needs to be a router
Host movement frequent Topology change frequent A number of sensors spread across a geographical area. Limited resources on sensors
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Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET)

Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks


Mobile IP

Mobile IP is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining their permanent IP address. Motivation:

Changing the IP address is not desired when host moves. However, traditional scheme requires to change IP address when host moves between networks.

Mobile IP provides an efficient, scalable mechanism for node mobility within the Internet. Mobile IP allows moving devices to maintain transport and higher-layer connections while moving. Applications:

Mobile IP is most often found in wireless WAN environments where users need to carry their mobile devices across multiple LANs with different IP addresses.
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Mobile IP: Basic Idea

Home Agent (HA) Mobile Node (MN)

home network Internet

receiver foreign network

COA: ?

Foreign Agent (FA)


1. Sender sends to the IP address of MN, HA intercepts packet (proxy ARP) 2. HA tunnels packet to COA, here FA, by encapsulation 3. FA forwards the packet to the MN
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Mobile IP: Basic Idea



home network Internet



foreign network


1. Sender sends to the IP address of the receiver as usual, FA works as default router
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Bluetooth is used to connect and exchange information between devices like PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers and digital cameras wirelessly. Named after a Denmark king Harold Bluetooth, who is known for his unification of previously warring tribes. Low-cost, short range (up to 10m), low power consumption, license-free 2.45 GHz band. Using the same frequency range, Bluetooth differs from Wi-Fi in that

Different multiplexing schemes. Wi-Fi with higher throughput, greater distances, more expensive hardware, and higher power consumption. Wireless mouse, wireless headset
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RFID: Radio Frequency Identification

RFID is a method of remotely storing and retrieving data using devices called RFID tags.

An RFID tag is a small object, such as an adhesive sticker, that can be attached to or incorporated into a product. RFID tags contain antennas to enable them to receive and respond to radio-frequency queries from an RFID transceiver. No line-of sight required (compared to laser scanners) Withstand difficult environmental conditions (cold, frost etc.) Active RFID: battery powered, distances up to 100 m Passive RFID: operating power comes from the reader over the air, distances up to 6 m Automated toll collection: RFIDs mounted in windshields allow commuters to drive through toll plazas without stopping
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One of the most popular standards for mobile phones in the world.

Formerly: Groupe Spciale Mobile (founded 1982) Now: Global System for Mobile Communication European standard, moving to North America

More than one billion people use GSM phones as of 2005, making GSM the dominant mobile phone system worldwide with about 70% of the world's market. GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smartcard containing the user's subscription information and phonebook.
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GSM Overview

RSS (Radio Subsystem) NSS (Network and switching subsystem) OSS (Operation Subsystem) MS (Mobile Station) BTS (Base Transceiver Station) BSC (Base Station Controller) MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center) GMSC (Gateway MSC) HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register) EIR (Equipment Identity Register) AUC (Authentication Center ) OMC (Operation and Maintenance Center ) 22





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GPRS: General Packet Radio Service It is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. It is often described as "2.5G. GPRS is packet-switched which means that multiple users share the same transmission channel, only transmitting when they have data to send. GPRS provides moderate speed data transfer, by allocating unused cell bandwidth to transmit data.

Poor bit rate in busy cells Usually, GPRS data is billed per kilobytes of information transceived

In 3G mobile systems like UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), voice and data services will be mixed in a normal communication.
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Personal digital assistants (PDAs or palmtops)

handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. A basic PDA usually includes a clock, date book, address book, task list, memo pad and a simple calculator. One major advantage of using PDAs is their ability to synchronize data with desktop, notebook and desknote computers. Palm OS by PalmSource, Inc Windows Mobile (Windows CE) by Microsoft BlackBerry by Research In Motion Symbian by a group of companies

The currently major PDA operating systems are:


According to a Gartner market study, the overall market for PDAs shrunk by 5% in the first quarter (Q1) of 2004, compared to Q1 2003. Yu Cai/MTU Talk 24

Satellite Systems

Like cellular systems, except that the base stations (i.e., satellites) move as will as mobile devices Satellite coverage attractive for areas of world not well served by existing terrestrial infrastructure: ocean areas, developing countries IRIDIUM Motorola Voice, Data (2.4 kbps), Fax, Location Services 66 satellites in 6 polar orbits (780 km) Failed project
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Future mobile and wireless networks

Shift industrial paradigm from piecewise solutions to end-to-end information systems Improved radio technology and antennas

smart antennas, beam forming, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) 802.11N dynamic spectrum allocation IP-based, quality of service, mobile IP spontaneous communication, power saving, redundancy intelligence at the edge, not in the network (as with IN) more service providers, not network operators only

Core network convergence

Ad-hoc technologies Simple and open service platform


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Integrated mobile computing

Integration of heterogeneous fixed and mobile networks with varying transmission characteristics

vertical handover
metropolitan area

campus-based in-car, in-house, personal area


horizontal handover

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IP-based next generation network ?

SS7 signalling PSTN, CS core gateways MSC server farm, gateways, proxies broadcast


IP-based core

firewall, GGSN, gateway Internet access points private private WLAN WPAN



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Jochen Schiller Mobile Communications Ivan Stojmeniovic Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing Andrew Tanenbaum Computer Networks James D. Solomon Mobile IP, the Internet unplugged Charles E. Perkins Ad-hoc networking Papers, papers, papers, Mobile Computing Courses MIT: http://nms.lcs.mit.edu/6.829-f01/ Stanford: http://www.stanford.edu/class/cs444n/ UC Berkley: http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~adj/cs294-1.f00/ UT Austin: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/ygz/395T/ http://kunz-pc.sce.carleton.ca/sce536/ http://www.cs.unc.edu/~dewan/290/s02/lectures/lectures.htm http://www.cs.arizona.edu/classes/cs630/fall01/630-1/contents.htm http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~cs290i_mc/index.html


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Thank you!


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