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Renewing the Sectional Struggle: 1848-1854

Theme: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but Douglass Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 exploded it again. Theme: In the 1850s American expansionism in the West and the Caribbean was extremely controversial because it was tied to the slavery question. Theme: A series of major North-South crises in the late 1850s culminated in the election of the antislavery Republican Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. His election caused seven southern states to secede from the union and form the Confederate States of America.

I. Compromise of 1850
1. 2. 3.

Background Events
Wilmot Proviso, 1848 The compromise: Popular Sovereignty Election 1848
a. b. Taylor/Fillmore (W) v. Cass (D) Free soil, free speech, free labor, free men.


CA Gold Rush

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Background Issues
Political balance of slavery CA and Mexican Cessation? Fugitive Slave Law, 1793
a. Harriet Tubman

Disputed territory with TX Slavery in D.C. (1000 per year)


A. B. C. Clay and Douglas and Webster and Fillmore Calhoun William higher law Seward


Provisions (PopFACT)

Manifest Destiny SF Walking Tour, Dec. 21st

II. Expansion of Slavery

A. Election of 1852
1. 2. Pierce a proslave northerner supported the F.S.L. (D) Scotts (W) support of F.S.L. alienated southern Whigs Asia
a. b. Treaty of Wanghia, 1844 Commodore Perry, 1852

B. International Expansion
1. 2.

Latin America
a. b. c. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1848 W. Walker in Nicaragua Ostend Manifesto, 1854

II. Expansion of Slavery (cont.)

C. Domestic Expansion: Transcontinental RR
1. 2. Gadsden Purchase Proposed territory of NB and KS
a. b. S. Douglas Popular Sovereignty North Free-Soilers Southern Fire-eaters Crash of Democratic Party-28 years Creation of GOP


a. b. c. d.

III. Rise of Sectionalism


Voices of Sectionalism
1. 2. 1. 2. 3. Harriet Beecher Stowe Hinton Helper Emigration into KS
a. a. b. NEEAC and Beechers Bibles border ruffians Free-soilers in Topeka Attack on Lawrence, KS Pottawatomie Massacre, 1856 Lecompton Constitution, 1857 Caning of Senator Sumter Buchanan (D) v. Fremont (R) v. Fillmore (Do Not)

Case Study: Bleeding KS

Territorial vote, 1855 Violence
a. b. c. d.

John Steuart Currys Tragic Prelude (1938-1940)


Election of 1856

IV. Failure of Compromise

A. Dred Scot Decision
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pro-Slave majority on court (Taney) Hit #1: No citizenship for blacks Hit #2: Slaves be taken anywhere (5th) Hit #3: Missouri Compromise unconstitutional (5th) North horrified, Its an opinion, not decision! Ca Gold and Over-production/speculation Western demand for free land/160 Industrialists demand for higher tariffs Cotton is King! GOP spotlight Freeport Doctrine-territories could refuse to pass laws protecting slaveryending slavery. Establish free black state Became a martyr in north and feared in the south


Financial Crisis of 1857

1. 2. 3. 4.


Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858

1. 2.


Harpers Ferry, 1859

1. 2.

Standing Lincoln, Lincoln Park, Chicago

IV. Failure of Compromise (cont.)

E. Election of 1860
1. 2. 3. Democrats
a. Douglas b. Breckinridge

Constitutional Union
1. Bell

1. Lincoln

F. Tragic Chain Events

1. 2. 3. 11 states secede by VA Confederate States of Am., 1861 Crittenden amendments

Review Question
1. Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to the coming of the Civil War. Confine your answer to the period 1845-1861 (2010, A) 2. Analyze the social, political, and economic forces of the 1840s and early 1850s that led to the emergence f the Republican Party (2009, A)