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Introduction to 3G

Why 3G?
Next few slides taken from web give various reasons as to why 3G was needed. Why do you think 3G was created?

Why 3G?
Existing mobile networks (GSM/CDMA) were designed to handle voice traffic and voice-oriented services. Then, when they were introduced into the market it turned out that, other than voiceoriented, additional services (SMS to set an example) gained unexpected popularity. The need for data transmission through mobile networks has been growing gradually together with Internet popularity.

Why 3G?
Therefore some network upgrades had to be introduced into existing mobile networks (HSCSD, GPRS). However, these improvements provide only limited capability (e.g. GPRS - up to 50kbit/s in reality). They don't provide flexible, variable data speed, supporting Quality of Service solutions.

Types of Traffic
As latest estimates show that packet switching traffic is growing rapidly, and will probably exceed circuit switching by 2005. Operators must be sure that their core network architecture by that time is ready to provide equally strong circuit-switched and packet-switched domains to meet the speed and capacity demands.

Lack of Resources
Another important factor is that together with the need for efficient data-oriented mobile networks, the beginning of radio resources shortage in dense populated areas has been observed, due to high level of penetration in mature mobile markets (penetration rates around 50% and up to 80% in the Nordic countries). Therefore a new radio access technology is needed to cope with those problems.

Duping the Mobile Network Operators Denis O Brien view


In 1995, the equipment manufacturers started to talk about the next paradigm shift i.e. 2G to 3G. They pushed the proposed benefits of 3G to the public at large. EU was sold on the idea of the new players. It helped that the manufacturers were of EU origin (Sweden, Germany, France and Finland). Network operators growth was slowing. 60%+ of people had a mobile phone (100% in Scandinavia). Looking for ways of continuing their growth story for the market. Scared of missing an opportunity to capitalise on strong capital market condition. Everybody bought the myth.

3G Vision
Universal global roaming Multimedia (voice, data & video) Increased data rates
384 Kbps while moving
2 Mbps when stationary at specific locations

Increased capacity (more spectrally efficient) IP architecture

IMT-2000 Vision Includes LAN, WAN and Satellite Services


Global

Satellite
Suburban Urban In-Building

Macrocell

Microcell

Picocell

Basic Terminal PDA Terminal Audio/Visual Terminal

3G Services: The Promise


Customised Infotainment Multimedia Messaging Service Mobile Intranet/Extranet Access Mobile Internet Access Location-based Services Rich Voice (simple and enhanced voice)

Designing 3G
Technical arguments galore as to which technologies should be used. Standardisation bodies tried to come to agreement as to what was the best options

Example Mobile Standards Organizations


European Technical Standard Institute (Europe):
http://www.etsi.org

Telecommunication Industry Association (USA):


http://www.tiaonline.org

Standard Committee T1 (USA):


http://www.t1.org

China Wireless Telecommunication Standard (China):


http://www.cwts.org

The Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japan):


http://www.arib.or.jp/english/index.html

The Telecommunication Technology Committee (Japan):


http://www.ttc.or.jp/e/index.html

The Telecommunication Technology Association (Korea):


http://www.tta.or.kr/english/e_index.htm

So which technology for 3G??


Almost all accepted 3G radio standards are based on CDMA
http://www.3g-generation.com/cdma_principle.htm

BUT .

International Standardization
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
radio standards and spectrum

IMT-2000
ITUs umbrella name for 3G which stands for International Mobile Telecommunications 2000

National and regional standards bodies are collaborating in 3G partnership projects


ARIB, TIA, TTA, TTC, CWTS. T1, ETSI (will learn about some of these later)

3G Partnership Projects (3GPP & 3GPP2)


focused on evolution of access and core networks

The Standards Issue


When the ITU tried to unify and standardize 3G technologies, no consensus was reached. There were thus five terrestrial standards developed as part of the IMT2000 program. Instead, depending on where in the world 3G will be implemented, the 3G standard will be based on CDMA variants with some other technologies thrown in as well.

IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces

IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces

IMT-DS
The IMT-DS is a W-CDMA standard.

W-CDMA
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) is a wideband radio technique that provides far higher data rates than other radio techniques available today, up to 2Mbit/s, and highly efficient use of radio spectrum. Co-developed by NTT DoCoMo, it is being backed by most European mobile operators and is expected to compete with cdma2000 to be the de facto 3G standard

UMTS (W-CDMA)
In Europe, 3G W-CDMA networks are known as UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephony System) another name for wCDMA/3G services. Governments in the region held UMTS auctions for 3G licences netting $108 billion in 2000.

FOMA (W-CDMA)
Japanese giant NTT DoCoMo Inc brand name for 3G services is FOMA (Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access). This is also based on the W-CDMA format

IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces

IMT-MC
The IMT-MC is a cdma2000 standard.

cdma2000
You will recall cdmaOne. cdma2000 is the upgrade to cdmaOne. It uses a wider spectrum than CDMA and therefore can transmit and receive information faster and more efficiently, making fast Internet data, video, and CD-quality music transmission possible.

cdma2000
There are however new cdma2000 variants called cdma2000 1X, 1X-EV-DV, 1X EV-DO, and cdma2000 3X. They deliver 3G services while occupying a very small amount of current spectrum (1.25 MHz per carrier) as opposed to UMTS which requires completely NEW spectrum (hence the auctions).

IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces

TD-SCDMA
TD-SCDMA is the Chinese contribution to the ITU's IMT-2000 specification for third generation (3G) wireless mobile services. Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access TD-SCDMA operates using the TDD mode, transmitting on one frequency on a timeshifted basis in both directions (uplink and downlink). The system is being promoted by China Mobile and China Unicom through a TDSCDMA forum

Standards adopted for IMT2000


Mode IMT-DS Description Standard DIRECT SEQUENCE W-CDMA UTRA FDD MULTICARRIER cdma2000 TDMA/CDMA UTRA TDD TD-SCDMA SINGLE CARRIER UWC-136 FDMA/TDMA DECT

IMT-MC IMT-TC IMT-SC IMT-FT

*the three indicated in green are emerging as the

Bands
The third generation frequencies for IMT2000 were identified by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 1992 No. S5.388 of the Radio Regulations

S5.388
The bands 1 885-2 025 MHz and 2 110-2 200 MHz are intended for use, on a worldwide basis, by administrations wishing to implement International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). Extensions

Other Issues
Putting aside that 3G has many issues assume we want to go there. So how do we get from here to 3G? Legacy Issues EVOLUTION not REVOLUTION

Migration To 3G
2.5G 2G 1G
Analog Voice
GSM GPRS

2.75G

3G
Multimedia

Intermediate Multimedia

Packet Data

Digital Voice
W-CDMA (UMTS)

EDGE
115 Kbps

NMT

9.6 Kbps

384 Kbps

Up to 2 Mbps

TDMA TACS
9.6 Kbps

GSM/ GPRS
(Overlay) 115 Kbps

TD-SCDMA
2 Mbps?

iDEN
9.6 Kbps

iDEN PDC
9.6 Kbps (Overlay)

AMPS CDMA
14.4 Kbps / 64 Kbps

CDMA 1xRTT PHS


(IP-Based)

cdma2000
1X-EV-DV

144 Kbps

Over 2.4 Mbps

PHS

64 Kbps

1984 - 1996+

1992 - 2000+

2001+

2003+

2003 - 2004+
Source: U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray

Partnership Project and Forums


ITU IMT-2000 http://www.imt-2000.org/portal/index.asp Mobile Partnership Projects
3GPP : http://www.3gpp.org 3GPP2 : http://www.3gpp2.org

Mobile Technical Forums


3G All IP Forum: http://www.3gip.org IPv6 Forum: http://www.ipv6forum.com

Mobile Marketing Forums


Mobile Wireless Internet Forum: http://www.mwif.org UMTS Forum : http://www.umts-forum.org GSM Forum : http://www.gsmworld.org Universal Wireless Communication: http://www.uwcc.org Global Mobile Supplier: http://www.gsacom.com