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NT1310 Physical Networking

Unit 10 Key Concept 1: Fiber-Optics System Design and Installation

Installation Speci#ications
$end %adi&s Optical #iber depends on the maintenance o# total internal re#lection to carry an optical signal' (acrobends or )ery small radi&s bends in the optical #iber can change the light*s angle o# incidence eno&gh to ca&se some or a ma+ority o# the light to pass into the cladding se)erely atten&ating the signal or c&tting it o## completely' !ensile %ating !he +ob o# the strength member is to ens&re that no tensile stress is placed on the optical #iber d&ring and a#ter installation' !he strength member does ha)e physical limitations' !ensile #orces that e,ceed the physical limitations the cable -as designed to handle can damage the cable and possibly brea. the optical #iber'

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Installation 0ard-are
1&lling eye 2 specially designed to attach to the cable*s strength member at one end and a p&lling line at the other to #eed cable thro&gh a -all cond&it or other inaccessible space' 1&ll bo, 2 installed a#ter long straight r&ns in the cond&it to red&ce the tensile load as a cable is p&lled thro&gh Splice enclos&res 2 protects a mechanical or #&sion splice #rom e,pos&re and strain 1atch panels - interconnection point #or #iber-optical cables allo-ing signals to be ro&ted #rom cable to cable -ith a patch cord or +&mper

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Installation (ethods
!ray and D&ct 2 optical #iber rests in trays or hori4ontal d&ct-or. Cond&it 2 #iber r&ns thro&gh dedicated cond&it -hich is then r&n thro&gh str&ct&res or &ndergro&nd Direct $&rial 2 r&n a s&itable cable directly in the gro&nd or inside a protecti)e pipe or cond&it -hich is then placed in the gro&nd 5erial 2 str&ng along a series o# poles similar to po-er lines $lo-n Fiber 2 ideal #or ne- constr&ction: Install the special t&bing or cond&it $lo- the optical #iber thro&gh the t&bes #rom location to location !erminate the optical #iber

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$asic Fiber-Optic System Design Considerations


0o- m&ch data needs to be mo)ed today7 0o- m&ch data -ill need to be mo)ed in the #&t&re7 8hat is the transmission distance7

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Fiber )s' Copper


5d)antages o# Fiber 0igher band-idth :o-er atten&ation ;o "(I (&ch less space needed 0igh sec&rity o# data ;o ris. o# electrical ha4ards 5d)antages o# Copper Cheaper 5lready installed many places

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NT1310 Physical Networking


Unit 10 Key Concept 2: i!er"#ptic Testing an$ Trou!leshooting

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!esting "?&ipment
Contin&ity !ester 2 lo--cost tool that allo-s yo& to ?&ic.ly )eri#y the contin&ity o# an optical #iber @is&al Fa&lt :ocator 2 e,pensi)e tool that allo-s yo& to ?&ic.ly identi#y brea.s or macrobends in the #iber and identi#y a poor #&sion splice in m&ltimode or single-mode optical #iber Fiber Identi#ier 2 by placing a slight macrobend in an optical #iber it can detect in#rared light tra)eling thro&gh the #iber and deterimne the direction o# light tra)el Optical %et&rn :oss !est Set 2 meas&res the amo&nt o# optical light energy that is re#lected bac. to the transmit end o# the #iber-optic cable Optical !ime-Domain %e#lectometer 2 pro)ides the most in#ormation abo&t the cable' It can be &sed to e)al&ate the loss and re#lectance o# interconnections and splices' It -ill also meas&re atten&ation rate o# a #iber and locate #a&lts

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!ro&bleshooting
Inspection and ")al&ation Connector Inspection 2 -ea.est lin. in any #iber-optic installation is li.ely the connector' (a.e e)ery e##ort possible to ens&re the connector is .ept clean' Connector "nd#ace ")al&ation 2 can only be properly e)al&ated -ith an inspection microscope' Slight indent or score mar.s are acceptable' %eceptacleA(ating Slee)e Inspection and Cleaning 2 many -ays to cleanse an end#ace incl&ding a cleaning stic. and a tape type cleaner'

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%estoration
!he #irst step in any restoration is to as. the c&stomer three ?&estions: 8hat do they belie)e the problem is7 8hen do they belie)e the problem #irst occ&rred7 8hat -as the last thing done to the system7

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Questions?

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