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Transformer

Professor Mohamed A. El-


Sharkawi
Why do we need transformers?
• Increase voltage of generator’s output
– Transmit high power at low current
– Reduce cost of transmission system
• Adjust voltage to a usable level
• Create electrical isolation
• Match load impedance
• Filters
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220kV-750kV

Distribution
Transformer

15 kV- 25kV Transmission


Transformer

Service 208V- 416V


Transformer

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Transmission Transformer

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Distribution Transformer

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Distribution Transformer

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Service Transformer

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Service Transformer bank

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Service Transformer bank

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Service Transformer

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Service Transformer

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Service Transformer

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Service Transformer

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Service Transformer

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Low power Transformer

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Basic Components

Iron Core Insulated Copper Wire

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Basic Components
Laminated
iron core

Insulated
copper wire

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dφ dφ
e1 = N1
dt e2 = N 2
1
dt
φ =
N1 ∫ e1 dt
i1 i2

e1 N1 N2 e2

Primary Secondary

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Basic Analysis:Voltage
dφ i1 i2
N1
e1 ( t ) dt N1 + +
= = e1 N1 N2 e2
e2 ( t ) N dφ N 2 _ _
2
dt
  
E1 N1 E1 E2
 = =
E2 N 2 N1 N 2
• Volts/turn is constant
• Voltages are in phase (no phase shift)
• Voltage magnitudes vary with turns ratio.
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Basic Analysis: Power and
current
i1 i2
S1 = S 2
+ + e2
e1 _
N1 N2
_
EI =E I
1 1
* *
2 2

*
I E2 N 2 I1 N 2
1
=
*
= = N1 I 1 = N 2 I 2
I2 E1 N1 I 2 N1
• Currents are in phase.
• Current ratio is opposite to the voltage ratio
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Basic Analysis: Reflected
impedance
Flux

I2 Load
I1
Source
E1 N1 N2 E2 Zload

Primary Secondary

E2
Z load =
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Basic Analysis: Reflected
impedance
I1
E1
Source
' Z '
=
E1 Z load
load
I1
2
Primary Z '
E1 I 2  N1 
=
load
=  
Z load E2 I1  N 2 
2
 N1 
Z '
load = Z load  
 N2 
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Single-Phase, Ideal Transformer
Ratings
I1 I2
Apparent Power
+ +
V1 N1 N2 V2
2 KVA, 120/240 V ­ ­

Primary Voltage Secondary Voltage

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Rated Values
• Rated voltage: The device can
continuously operate at the rated voltage
without being damaged due to insulation
failure
• Rated current: The device can
continuously operate at the rated current
without being damaged due to thermal
destruction
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Example I1 I2
Transformer rating:
2 KVA, 240/120 V
Compute the currents + +
V1 N1 N2 V2
­ ­
S = V1 I1 = V2 I 2 = 2 KVA
S
2 KVA
I2 = = = 16.67 A
V2 120 V

S
2 KVA
I1 = = = 8.33 A
V1 240 V
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Multi-Secondary Transformer

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Multi-secondary windings

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I3

I1 N3 E3

E1 N1 I2

N2 E2

Primary
E1 N1
=
E2 N 2
E1 N1
=
E
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3 N 3 31
Current ratio: superposition

N2
I12 I12 = I2
N1
E1 N1 I2

N2 E2

Primary

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Current ratio: superposition

I3

N3
I13 = I 3
I13 N3 E3

E1 N1
N1

Primary

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I3 Superposition
N3 E3
I1

E1 N1 I2

N2 E2

Primary

N2 N3
I1 = I12 + I13 = I 2 + I3
N1 N1
I 1 N1 = I 2 N 2 + I 3 N 3
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I3 Superposition
N3 E3
I1

E1 N1 I2

N2 E2

Primary

S1 = S 3 + S 3
EI =E I +EI
1 1
* *
2 2
*
3 3

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Example
• The transformer consists of one primary winding and two secondary
windings. The number of turns is each winding is
N1 = 4000; N 2 =1000; N 3 = 500
A voltage source of 120V is applied to the primary winding, and
purely resistive loads are connected across the secondary windings. A
wattmeter placed in the primary circuit measures 300W. Another
wattmeter placed in the secondary winding N2 measures 90W.
Compute the following:

• The voltages of the secondary windings


• The currents in N3
• The power consumed by the load connected across N3

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Solution
N2 1000
E2 = E1 =120 = 30
N1 4000
N3 500
E3 = E1 =120 = 15
N1 4000
P1 300
I1 = = = 2.5
E1 cos θ1 120
P2 90
I2 = = =3
E 2 cos θ 2 30

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Solution
I1 N1 = I 2 N 2 + I 3 N 3
2.5 * 4000 = 1000 * 3 + 500 I 3
I 3 = 14

E1 I1 = E 2 I 2 + E3 I 3
120 * 2.5 = 30 * 3 +15 I 3

I 3 = 14
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Solution

P1 = P2 + P3
300 = 90 + P3

P3 = 210

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Autotransformer

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I1 I2
A1 B1

E1 E2
V1 N1 N2 V2
A2
B2

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Autotransformer: Voltage and current
Is
I load = I1 + I 2 N1
A1

E1 I1

A2
Iload
V1
V1 = E1 + E2 N2
B1

E2 I2 V2

B2

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I1 I2 Autotransformer
+ + Is
E1 N1 N2 E2 A1
N1
I1
­ ­ E1

A2 Iload
V1 B1
N2
S A = E1 I1 = E2 I 2 E2 I2 V2

B2

S B = V1 I s = V2 I load
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Autotransformer: Power

S B = V1 I s = ( E1 + E2 ) I1 = E1 I1 + E2 I1
S B = S A + E 2 I1

SB > S A
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Example
Ratings of regular transformer: 10 kVA, 400/200 V
New voltage ratio: 600/200 V
Compute the new ratings
Is
Solution
A1
N1
E1 I1
10 Iload
I2 = = 50 A A2
0.2 V1 B1
10 N2
I1 = = 25 A E2 I2 V2
0.4
S B = V1 I1 = 600 × 25 = 15 kVA B2

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VARIC: Variable Auto-Transformer
Z

N3
Is
Y

Sliding
I1 terminal
N1
V1 Iload

N2 I2 V2

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Output Voltage
N2
Vload = Vs Z

N1 + N 2 Is N3

Y
Sliding
I1 terminal

At Y N1
Iload
N1 + N 2 V1
Vload = Vs = Vs
N1 + N 2 N2 I2 V2

At Z
N1 + N 2 + N 3
Vload = Vs
N1 + N 2
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Three-Phase Transformer

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3-phase transformer

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3-phase transformer Y-Y connection.
Also known as star-star connection
a A
N1 N2
n N

c b C B
l o Ves a h P f o oit a R

o Ve ni L f o oit a R
Van N1 Vac 3 Van N1
= = =
VAN N2 VAC 3 V AN N2
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3-phase transformer (∆ -∆ )
A
a

N1 N2
B
c b
C
Vac N1
=
VAC N2
oit a R

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3-phase transformer (Y-∆ )
Also known as star-delta connection
a A
N1
n
N2 B

c b C

tl o Ve ni L f o oit a R
Ves a h P f o oit a R

Van N1 Vac 3 Van 3 N1


= = =
VAC N2 VAC VAC N2
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3-phase transformer bank (Y-
a ∆ ) A
V AB N2 Vab Van N1 N2
= VAB
Van N1
B
b
V AB V AB N2 N1 N2
= =
Vab 3 Van 3 N1
C
c
N1 N2

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Ratings of Ideal 3-phase
Transformer
Apparent Power (3-phase)

100 MVA, 13.8/138 KV

Primary Voltage Secondary Voltage


line-to-line line-to-line
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Example
• Three single-phase transformers are used to form a three-
phase transformer bank. Each single-phase transformer is
rated at 10 kVA, 13.8 KV/240 V. One side of the
transformer bank is connected to a three-phase, 13.8 kV
transmission line. The other side of the transformer is
connected to a three-phase residential load of 415.7V,
9kVA at 0.8 power factor lagging. Determine the
connection of the transformer bank, the voltage ratio of the
transformer bank, and the line current of the bank at the
13.8 kV side

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Solution
• Secondary voltage (Low voltage side) should be in
Y to provide the needed residential voltage
415.7
= 240 V
3
• The high voltage side must be Delta-connection
– The line-to-line voltage of the supply is 13.8 kV. Same
as the transformer rating of the primary.
– If the primary is connected in Y, the voltage of the load
would be lower than 240 V.

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Solution Van = 240 V
A a
VAB = 13.8 kV N1 N2 Van Vab

B b
N1 N2

C
c
   

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VAB VAB 13,800
Solution Van = 240 V

= = A a
Vab 3 Van 3 240 VAB = 13.8 kV Van V
N1 N2 ab

Phase current of the load B b


9000 N1 N2
I2 = 3 = 12.5 A C
240 c
Phase current of the Transformer primary

N2 240 Line Current in primary


I1 = I 2 = 12.5 = 0.2174 A
N1 13,800 I A = 3 I1 = 0.377 A
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Actual Transformer
• Windings: i1 i2
– Resistance
+ + e2
– Inductance e1 _
N1 N2
_
• Core:
– Eddy Current
– Hysteresis

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Windings Impedance
R1 X1 R2 X2

N1 N2

Ideal Transformer
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Core Hysteresis
i B
+
e N
_

B= f ( ∫ e dt )
H = f (i) El-Sharkawi@University of Washington 62
∫e

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Core Model i

Let
e R
e = Emax sin ωt
∫e
Emax
∫ e dt = − ω cos ωt
e Emax
i= = sin ωt i
R R

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Core Model i

Let
e Xl
e = Emax sin ωt
Emax ∫e
∫ e dt = − ω cos ωt
di
e=L
dt
i
1 Emax
i = ∫ e dt = − cos ωt
L ωL
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i

e R Xl

∫e
∫e

i
i

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Equivalent Circuit
'
R1 X1 I 2 R2 X2
N1 N2
Io
I1 I2

load
V1 E1 E2 V2
Ro Xo

E1 N1 V1 '
I2 N2 I1
= ≠ = ≠
E2 N 2 V2 I2 N1 I2
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Referred impedance
'
R1 X1 I 2 R2 X2
N1 N2
Io
I1 I2
V1 E1 E2 V2
Ro Xo

E1 =
N1
N2
E2 =
N1
N2
[ I 2 ( R2 + jX 2 ) + V2 ]

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Referred impedance
'
R1 X1 I 2 R2 X2
N1 N2
Io
I1 I2
V1 E1 E2 V2
Ro Xo

N1 N1  ' N1 
E1 = E2 = I 2 ( R2 + jX 2 ) + V2 
N2 N2  N2 
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N1 N1  ' N1 
E1 = E2 = I 2 ( R2 + jX 2 ) + V2 
N2 N2  N2 
2
 N1  N1
Define: E1 = I  '
2
 ( R2 + jX 2 ) + V2
 N2  N2
2
 N1 
R'2 =   R2
 N2 
2
 N1  Then:
X '2 =
  X 2
 N2 
' N1
V2 = V2
( )
E1 = I 2' R2' + jX 2' + V2'
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Equivalent Circuit Referred to
Source Side
E1 = I 2' ( R2' + jX 2' ) + V2'
'
R1 X1 I 2 R2 X2
N1 N2
Io
I1 I2
V1 E1 E2 V2
Ro Xo

R1 X1 R'2 X '2

Io
I1 I 2'
V1 E1 V2'
Ro Xo

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Practical
Considerations X '2
R1 X1 '
R2

Io '
I1 I 2
V1 E1 V2'
Ro Xo

'
R1 << Ro >> R2 ' I1 = I2 + Io
'
X 1 << X o >> X 2' I 2 >> I o << I1
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R1
X1 R'2 X '2

Io '
I1 I 2
V1 V2'
Ro Xo

X1 X '2 I 2'
R1 R'2

Io
I1 V2'
V1
Ro Xo

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X1 X '2
R1 R'2

I 1 ≈ I '2
V1 V2'

'
Req = R1 + R2
Define:
'
X eq = X 1 + X 2

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Analysis of Transformer
Req X eq

'
I1 ≈ I 2
V1 V2' Z

'
V1 = V2 + '
I2 ( Req + jX eq )
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Terminologies
V2 Load Voltage

Load Voltage referred to Source side


N1
V = 2
'
V2
N2 Impedance referred to Source side

2
 N1 
I2 Load Current R = 
'
2
 R2
 N2 
2
Load current referred to Source side  N1 
X = 
'
2
 X 2
N2  N2 
I =
'
2 I2
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Analysis of Transformer
Req X eq

'
I1 ≈ I 2
V1 V2' Z’

'
V1 = V2 + '
I2 ( Req + jX eq )
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Req X eq

'
I1 ≈ I 2
V1 V2' Z’

'
I 2 X eq
'
I2
'
I 2 Req
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Req X eq

'
I1 ≈ I 2
V1 V2' Z

V1 = V2' + I 2' Req + j I 2' X eq V1


I '2 Z eq
δ I '2 X eq
θ V2' I '2 Req
'
I2
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Ratings of Actual 3-
phase Transformer
Apparent Power (3-phase)

100 MVA, 13.8/138 KV


'
V 2 V2
line-to-line line-to-line

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Example
A transformer has the following parameters:
N1
=10 Z l = 0.5∠30 Ω o
N2

Req = R1 + R2' =1Ω; X eq = X 1 + X 2' =10Ω; Ro =1000Ω; X 0 = 5000Ω

The rated voltage of the primary winding is 1000V.


Compute the load voltage.

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Req X eq
Solution

'
 N1 
2
I1 ≈ I 2
Z = Z L 
'
L
 = 50 Ω V1 V2' Z’
 N2 

V 1000 ∠ 0 0
I 2' = 1
= = 17 . 7 ∠ − 38 . 31o
A
( Req + j X eq ) + Z L (1+ j 10) + 50 ∠30
' o

V = I Z = (17.7 ∠ − 38.31
2
' '
2
'
L
o
) (50 ∠30 ) = 885 ∠ − 8.31
o 0
V
N2 1
V2 = V = 885 = 88.5 V
2
'

N1 10
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Voltage Regulation
VR X
Req eq

'
I1 ≈ I 2
V1 V2'

da o L
Vno load − V full load
VR ≡
V full load
V1 − V2'
VR ≡
'
Measured at the load side V2
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Example
Calculate the voltage regulation of the transformer in the
previous problem.

Solution:
'
V1 − V2
VR ≡
'
V2
7209.5 − 7200
VR = × 100 = 0.14 %
7200

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Efficiency
η Req Xeq

Io
I1 '
V1 I 2 V2'
Ro Xo

η =
Output Power Pout
Input Power
=
Pin
Pcu = ( )
' 2
I2 Req
V12
Pin = Pout + Losses Piron =
Ro
Plosses = Pcu + Piron Pout = V2' I '2 cos θ
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Example
A 10 kVA, 2300/230 V, single phase distribution transformer
has the following parameters:
R1 = 5.8 Ω ; X 1 = X '2 = 12 Ω ; R'2 = 6.05 Ω
Ro = 75.6 kΩ ; X o = 69.4 kΩ
At full load and 0.8 power factor lagging, compute the efficiency
of the transformer.

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Solution
Pout = V2' I '2 cos θ = S cos θ = 10 × 0.8 = 8 kW

' S 10 ,000
I2 = = = 4.35 A
' 2300
V2

Pcu = ( )
' 2
I2 Req = ( 4.35 )2 × ( 5.8 + 6.05 ) = 224.23 W

Piron =
V 1
2

V
=
( )
( 2300 )
2
' 2
= 70 W
2

Ro Ro 75,600
Pout 8000
η = = × 100 = 96.45 %
Pin 8000 + 224.23 + 70
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