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Development & Implementation of a

SCADA System for Load Control of the


Power System Simulator (PSS)
Ahmed Fayez 199905252
Mohammed Adnan 199901444
Khalid Yousif 199900237
Salman Al katheeri 199900317
Presentation Layout
SCADA Introduction
SCADA Hardware
RTU
PSS
Wiring
SCADA Software
ISaGraF
Citect
DNP
Future Work
Demonstration



Introduction
Introduction (What Is SCADA?)
Stands for supervisory control And data
acquisition.
SCADA systems are used in industrial
processes: steel making, power generation
(conventional and nuclear) and distribution.
There Are 4 Components In the SCADA
System.
SCADA Components
Field Instrumentation.
Sensors, devices to control.
Remote Terminal Units.
RTU Vs. PLC
Communications Network.
Equipment needed to transfer data to and from different sites
Central Monitoring Station
Collecting information gathered by the remote stations to
generate the necessary action
Disadvantages Of Relay Systems
Relays used only for on/off control.
Complicated control systems
Expensive System.
System takes up much floor and space.
Control relays are power- hungry, heat
generation.
Any change in control program requires the
rewiring of relays.
For complicated control systems, it is difficult to
troubleshoot and locate the faults.

Advantages Of SCADA systems
Easily programmed or reprogrammed
Easy maintained (self diagnostic).
Capability to do arithmetic function.
The ability to communicate with other
controller or a master host computer.
PLCs. were able to move past simple on/off
control to more complex schemes as PID
control.

Applications Of SCADA
Almost every business in the manufacturing
sector and many in the service sector
Aerospace
Bottling and Canning
Chemicals Plants
Petroleum, Petrochemical


Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)
PDS eNET OVERVIEW
DIGITAL / ANALOG INPUTS
32 x Digital Inputs
9-28V DC Operation range
LED Indication (Disable Option)
Optically Isolated (1500V peak)

12 x Analog Inputs
0-5V,1-5V,0-10V,0-20mA, 4-20mA
(selectable per channel)
Surge Protection

4 x Analog Outputs
Internal / External power supply Source
0-20mA, 4-20mA
(Voltage output with external resistor)
Short circuit protected


NET OVERVIEW e RTU PDS
DIGITAL / ANALOG OUTPUTS
RTU Scan Time

Power System Simulator
Power System Simulator ( PSS):
The objective of the PSS is to
simulate a real power system.
Power system should be divide
in to three sections , the
generator station, transmission
line and load ( distribution
section ).

PSS Parts

1- Generator Stations:
The generator station contains two internal generators and a
third external generator.
Separately excited synchronous generator is the type of the
machine which used in PSS.
The DC motor in PSS is used as prime mover.
The DC motor in PSS is Shunt DC motor type.

2- Transmission lines:
It is represented by wires that are different in shape and
size.
The size and shape is depended on the level voltages and
the load.

3- The loads:
As in the real power system, the PSS has three type of load:
Residential.
Commercial .
Industrial.
The difference between these come from values of :
- Load.
- Power consumption.
- Power factor for each type. Also the difference rises in the
peak load timing for each type.

Sensors
In the industry field is now using computers to control and
motions and sequences of machines.
PLC cannot see, hear, feel or tester processes by themselves
but use industrial sensors to give industrial controllers these
capabilities.
In our project the Sensors are used as feedback to PLC from
PSS to enhance the system performance.


Sensors
There were different types of sensor that will be used like Voltage
sensor, current sensor, frequency sensor and power sensor.

Current sensor have rating of 0 5 A.
Voltage sensor has a rating of 0 - 150 V.
Frequency sensor, it has a rating of 0 -100Hz.
Power sensor, it has rating of 0- 5 A and 0 150 v.
The outputs from all sensors which going to RTU were 4 20 mA. It is
used this rating to sense any problem in system .


Wiring
Wiring
Auxiliary Switch
RTU
Output Port Input Port
Relay1(External)
Common
12V
0V
Internal Relay
0V
Common
Transistor
Switch
12V
R1
220V Start
0 V
From RTU Power
Supply
12 V
+
0
0
+
COM 1 2 3 4 5
Com
1 2 3 4
220 V
T.B
Control Circuit

A
B
C
Coil 1
Ax 1
A
B
C
Coil 2
Ax 2
ON
N
Off
3 Phase Motor

M
COM IN 1 IN 2 IN 3 IN 4 IN 5
RTU
12 V
ISaGRAF
ISaGRAF
The Citect Interface
The DNP
The DNP
Future Plans
Future Plans
Stand by generator.
Adding generator 2 to the system.
Power factor correction.
Load scheduling.
Improving the previous SCADA program.

Stand by generator

The whole system will be supplied by the main
supplying unit.
A simulated fault will be applied on the system.
During that generator 1 will be on a stand by mode.
When the fault occur the main supplying unit will be
disconnected from the loads by using circuit breakers
and generator 1 will be supplying the whole system
instead.
All of this process will be done Automatically by the
program.
Adding generator 2
Generator 2 will be connected to the system using frequency and
current sensors.
Generator 2 will be also controlled by the program which will be
installed on the RTU.
Generator 2 will be as a back up if generator 1 didnt work
properly.

Back Up generator

Power factor correction
Capacitor banks are used to correct the power factor..
The value of the capacitance will depend on the value
of the load.
Capacitor banks will inject reactive power into the
system.
The reactive power will decrease the current in the
circuit reduce the losses in the transmission lines.

Load Scheduling
There are two types of loads:
Resistive load and active load.

1. The resistive load are two types:
Critical: supplying vital instruments &machines .
Non-critical: Ex: lighting gardens.

2. The active load:
Simulated By a resistor and inductance in series.



Load Scheduling
When the system suffers from overload on the
generator the program disconnect the non-critical
loads immediately.
Thus in the program all of the loads will be identified
so that the program can do this process
Automatically.
Improving the SCADA program
Some blocks will be added to increase the speed
of analyses process. This process will be applied
on the LADDER program.
The Graphical Interface will be enhanced. This
process will be applied on Citect.




Thanks for Listening
Now, well make a demo for our
work..