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Pengambilan Keputusan Manajerial

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Managerial Decision Making
Decision making is not easy

It must be done amid
ever-changing factors
unclear information
conflicting points of view
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Managerial
Decision Making
Decision Characteristics
Decision-making Models
Steps Executives Take Making Important
Decisions
Participative Decision Making
Techniques for Improving Decision Making in
Todays Organizations
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Decisions and Decision Making
Decision = choice made from available
alternatives
Decision Making = process of identifying
problems and opportunities and resolving
them

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Categories of Decisions
Programmed Decisions
Situations occurred often enough to enable
decision rules to be developed and applied in
the future
Made in response to recurring organizational
problems
Nonprogrammed Decisions in response
to unique, poorly defined and largely
unstructured, and have important consequences
to the organization
Ethical Dilemma: The No-Show Consultant
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Certainty, Risk, Uncertainty, Ambiguity

Certainty
all the information the decision maker needs is fully available
Risk
decision has clear-cut goals
good information is available
future outcomes associated with each alternative are subject to
chance
Uncertainty
managers know which goals they wish to achieve
information about alternatives and future events is incomplete
managers may have to come up with creative approaches to
alternatives
Ambiguity
by far the most difficult decision situation
goals to be achieved or the problem to be solved is unclear
alternatives are difficult to define
information about outcomes is unavailable
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Conditions that Affect the Possibility
of Decision Failure
Organizational
Problem
Problem
Solution
Low High Possibility of Failure
Certainty Risk Uncertainty Ambiguity
Programmed
Decisions
Nonprogrammed
Decisions
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Selecting a Decision Making Model
Depends on the managers personal
preference
Whether the decision is programmed or
non-programmed
Extent to which the decision is
characterized by risk, uncertainty, or
ambiguity
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Three Decision-Making Models
C Classical Model
CAdministrative Model
CPolitical Model
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Classical Model
Assumptions
Decision maker operates to accomplish goals that
are known and agreed upon
Decision maker strives for condition of certainty
gathers complete information
Criteria for evaluating alternatives are known
Decision maker is rational and uses logic
Normative = describes how a manager should and
provides guidelines for reaching an ideal decision
Logical decision in the organizations best economic interests
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Administrative
Model
- Two concepts are instrumental in shaping
the administrative model
Bounded rationality: people have limits or
boundaries on how rational they can be

Satisficing: means that decision makers choose
the first solution alternative that satisfies minimal
decision criteria
Herbert A. Simon
How nonprogrammed decisions are made--uncertainty/ambiguity
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Administrative Model
Managers actually make decisions in difficult situations
characterized by non-programmed decisions, uncertainty,
and ambiguity

Decision goals often are vague, conflicting and lack consensus
among managers;
Rational procedures are not always used
Managers searches for alternatives are limited
Managers settle for a satisficing rather than a maximizing solution
intuition, looks to past experience

Descriptive = how managers actually make decisions--not how
they should

How nonprogrammed decisions are made--uncertainty/ambiguity
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Political Model
Closely resembles the real environment in which
most managers and decision makers operate
Useful in making non-programmed decisions
Decisions are complex
Disagreement and conflict over problems and
solutions are normal
Coalition = informal alliance among
manages who support a specific goal
Closely resembles the real environment
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Characteristics of Classical, Political,
and Administrative Decision Making
Models
Classical Model Administrative Model Political Model
Clear-cut problem and goals Vague problem and goals Pluralistic; conflicting goals
Condition of certainty Condition of uncertainty Condition of uncertainty/ambiguity
Full information about Limited information about Inconsistent viewpoints; ambiguous
alternatives and their outcomes Alternatives and their outcomes information
Rational choice by individual Satisficing choice for resolving Bargaining and discussion among
for maximizing outcomes problem using intuition coalition members
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Six Steps in the Managerial
Decision-Making Process
Evaluation
and
Feedback
Diagnosis
and Analysis
of Causes
Recognition of
Decision
Requirement
Development of
Alternatives
Selection of
Desired
Alternative
Implementation
of Chosen
Alternative
Decision-
Making
Process
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
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Diagnosis and Analysis of Causes
Diagnosis = analyze underlying causal
factors associated with the decision situation

Managers make a mistake if they jump into
generating alternatives without first exploring
the cause of the problem more deeply
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Underlying Causes - Kepner /Tregoe
What is the state of disequilibrium affecting us?
When did it occur?
Where did it occur?
How did it occur?
To whom did it occur?
What is the urgency of the problem?
What is the interconnectedness of events?
What result came from which activity?

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Selection of Desired Alternatives
Risk Propensity = willingness to undertake
risk with the opportunity of gaining an
increased payoff

Implementation = using managerial,
administrative, and persuasive abilities to
translate the chosen alternative into action
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Decision Styles
Differences among people with respect to how
they perceive problems and make decisions
Not all managers make decisions the same
Directive style
Analytical style
Conceptual style
Behavioral style
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Personal Decision Framework
Situation:
Programmed/non-
programmed
Classical, administrative,
political
Decision steps
Decision Choice:
Best Solution to
Problem
Personal Decision
Style:
Directive
Analytical
Conceptual
Behavioral
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Directive Style
People who prefer simple, clear-cut solutions
to problems
Make decisions quickly
May consider only one or two alternatives
Efficient and rational
Prefer rules or procedures
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Analytical Style
Complex solutions based on as much data
as they can gather
Carefully consider alternatives
Base decision on objective, rational data
from management control systems and other
sources
Search for best possible decision based on
information available
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Conceptual Style
Consider a broad amount of information
More socially oriented than analytical style
Like to talk to others about the problem and possible
solutions
Consider many broad alternatives
Relay on information from people and systems
Solve problems creatively



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Behavioral Style
Have a deep concern for others as individuals
Like to talk to people one-on-one
Understand their feelings about the problem and the
effect of a given decision upon them
Concerned with the personal development of others
May make decisions to help others achieve their
goals
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Latihan
1. Dalam melakukan pekerjaan atau tugas-
tugas kelas, saya mencari :
a. Hasil-hasil praktis
b. Solusi terbaik
c. Pendekatan atau ide-ide kreatif
d. Kondisi kerja yang baik

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Latihan (2)
2. Saya menikmati pekerjaan :
a. Teknis dan terdefinisi dengan baik
b. Memiliki variasi yang beragam
c. Membiarkan diri saya untuk mandiri dan
kreatif
d. Melibatkan bekerja secara lebih dekat
dengan orang-orang lain
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Latihan (3)
3. Jenis manusia yang paling saya sukai untuk
bekerja dengan saya adalah :
a. Orang yang memiliki energi dan ambisius
b. Memiliki kapabilitas dan teratur
c. Terbuka terhadap ide-ide baru
d. Mudah setuju dan penuh kepercayaan
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Latihan (4)
4. Ketika saya memiliki masalah, biasanya
saya :
a. Bersandar pada apa yang telah terjadi di
masa lalu
b. Menerapkan analisis secara hati-hati
c. Mempertimbangkan pendekatan kreatif
yang bervariasi
d. Mencari kesepakatan dengan orang lain
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Latihan (5)
5. Saya memiliki keistimewaan dalam hal :
a. Mengingat tanggal dan fakta-fakta
b. Memecahkan masalah yang kompleks
c. Mencari sebanyak mungkin solusi
d. Bergaul dengan orang lain
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Latihan (6)
6. Ketika saya tidak memiliki banyak waktu,
saya :
a. Membuat keputusan dan bertindak cepat
b. Mengikuti rencana-rencana atau prioritas
utama yang telah ditentukan
c. Perlu waktu dan menolak penekanan
d. Bertanya pada orang lain untuk
mendapatkan petunjuk maupun dukungan
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Latihan (7)
7. Dalam situasi sosial, pada umumnya saya :
a. Berbicara pada orang lain
b. Berpikir tentang apa yang sebaiknya
dibicarakan
c. Melakukan pengamatan
d. Mendengarkan percakapan
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Latihan (8)
8. Orang lain menganggap saya :
a. Agresif
b. Disiplin
c. Kreatif
d. Suportif

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Latihan (9)
9. Yang paling tidak saya sukai adalah :
a. Saat keluar kendali
b. Mengerjakan pekerjaan yang
membosankan
c. Mengikuti aturan-aturan
d. Ditolak oleh orang lain
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Latihan (10)
10. Keputusan yang saya buat biasanya :
a. Langsung dan praktis
b. Sistematis atau abstrak
c. Luas dan fleksibel
d. Sensitif terhadap keperluan orang lain
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Latihan (11)
Jawaban :
a direktif
b analitis
c konseptual
d perilaku
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Participation in
Decision Making
Helps gauge the appropriate amount of
participation for subordinates in process

Leader Participation Styles
- Five levels of subordinate participation in decision
making ranging from highly autocratic to highly
democratic
Vroom-Jago
Model
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Participation in
Decision Making
EDiagnostic Questions
- Decision participation depends on the
responses to seven diagnostic questions
about

the problem
the required level of decision quality
the importance of having subordinates commit to
the decision

Vroom-Jago
Model
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Seven Leader Diagnostic Questions
C How significant is the decision?
C How important is subordinate commitment?
C What is the level of the leaders expertise?
C If the leader were to make the decision alone at what level
would subordinates be committed to the decision?
C What level is the subordinates support for the team or
organizations objectives?
What is the members level of knowledge or expertise
relative to the problem?
C How skilled or committed are group members to working
together?
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