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CABLE AND LAYING

-B. Prasad
Chartered Engineer
amieclub@gmail.com
Cable cut view

TYPE OF CABLE BASED ON
CONSTRUCTION

Coaxial cable
Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable
Twinax cable
Flexible cables
Non-metallic sheathed cable (or nonmetallic building wire, NM, NM-
B)[1]
Metallic sheathed cable (or armored cable, AC, or BX)[1]
Multicore cable (consist of more than one wire and is covered by
cable jacket)
Shielded cable
Single cable (from time to time this name is used for wire)
Twisted pair
Twisting cable
Cable for electrical
PVC cable upto 3.3KV
XLPE cable upto 33KV
LT and HT ABC cable
Instrumentation cable
Concentric core cable
Flexible cable & wire
FR/FRLS/LSOH cable
Fire survival cable
Under water cable


Elastomer
Trailing cable
Locomotive cables
Ship wiring cable
Wind mill cable/solar cable
Welding cable
Mining cable
LFH cable and wire
Fire survival cable
EPR, Silicon, EVA cables
Telecom
PIJF cable
5-2400 pair
Indoor telephone cable
QUAD/PCM cable
Optical fibre cable
Armoured/duct/aerial
Torpedo cable
TOW cable
Composite cable
Fiber-Optic Cable
Advantages:
It operate at high speeds
It has a large carrying capacity
The signals can be transmitted further without being
strengthened.
It is immune to interference caused by electromagnetic
noise such as radios, motors, or other nearby cables.
It is cheaper to maintain.
You do not have to worry about grounding1 the cable.
Disadvantages:
The cable is more expensive than copper cables.
It is difficult to install.
Construction of cable
Construction of XLPE
Construction of EHV XLPE single core
XLPE has replaced conventional cable
Lower
dielectric
loss
High
Ampacity
Low
maintenan
ce cost
Longer
life
Lower
installation
cost
Insulating material
PVC (Polyvinyl
Chloride)
PE (Polyethylene)
XLPE (Cross-Linked
Polyethylene)
EPR (Ethylene
Propylene Rubber)
LSF (Low smoke and
fume)
Polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE)

Thermoplastic
Rubber (TPR)
Neoprene
(Polychloroprene)
Styrene Butadiene
Rubber (SBR)
Silicone
Rubber
Chlorosulfonated
Polyethylene (CSPE)

Junction bus
1. Electrical Junction Boxes
2. Wiring Junction Boxes
3. Electric Junction Boxes
4. Plastic Junction Boxes
5. Cable Junction Boxes
6. Plastic Electrical Junction
Boxes
7. Weather proof junction boxes
8. Flameproof junction boxes

Cable lug
Material:
copper
&
aluminium
Conductivity
:
Copper
99.7% iacs
Aluminium
61.2% iacs
(1050).

Cable lug ---contd
Cable manufacturers
Name of manufacturer Brand
1. N.C cable industries National
2. Evershine Electric Works ECKO
3. Electric Cable Industries ECI
4. Paragon Cable Company paragon
5. Surya Power Limited ALCAB
6. National insulated cable co. NICCO
7. Indian cable company INCAB
8. Aluminium industries limited ALIND
9. R.K Electrical KALINGA
10. Polycab Industries POLYCAB
11. Plaza Cable PLAZA
12. Empire Cable Industries EMPIRE
13. Hovels cable HAVELL
14. Cable corporation of India CCI
15. Kei Industries Limited KEI

Historical progress of cable technology
Historical voltage development in country
Indian and international
standard
Reduction in insulation thickness
Metallic sheath
Function of metallic sheath
to provide
earthing for
protection
To protect against
mechanical damage
To prevent ingress
moisture
Lead sheath construction
Electrical Resistivity
Material Resistivity (-
cm@20 deg.C)
Copper 1.724
Aluminium 2.826
Steel 13.8
Lead 21.4
0
5
10
15
20
25
Resistivity (-cm@20 deg.C)
Resistivity (-
cm@20 deg.C)
Density of material
Material density (gm/cm
3
)
Copper 8.9
Aluminium 2.7
Steel 11.35
Lead 7.864
Importance of cable installation
A poor installation creates unreliable service
other agency my damage the cable.
Telephone cable, communication cable, water
line, gas pipe line may get affected
Location of cabling
Laying direct in ground
In pipes,
Closed or Open ducts,

Cable trays and
On surface of wall


Step of cable installation
Route survey
Permission
Trial pits
Pipe laying
Material shifting, drum placement
Trenching cable laying
Bedding and tiling
Backfilling
Cable installation record
tagging


Route survey
Type of surface like footpath, PCC, RCC, soil
type
Hazardous like tree roots, pillars, sever line,
drain, bus stop, water pipe, gas pipe
Cable root passing from private property
Cable root away from parallel running gas,
water pipe, communication cable etc
Road crossing, over bridge, drain crossing
Trial pit
Along the
proposed cable
root.
Trial pit at the
interval of 15-20
meter

Permission
Before starting the excavation permission to be
taken
Railways
Traffic police and defence
Forrest department
Communication and gas authority
Other service department if any
Digging
To display Men
at work
Don't damage
the other cable
Least use of
pickaxe and
chisel
Correct Depth
depending upon
voltage grade
Depth of cable
LT cable (1.1KV) 0.75 m
HT cable (11KV) 0.90 m
HT cable (33KV) 1.20 m
Sand - covered with 150 mm
Width of the trench - 350 mm minimum
Loop approximate -3 meter each side

Minimum bending radius
Voltage
rating
PILC cable PVC & XLPE cable
KV Single core Multicore Single core Multicore
Upto 1.1 20D 15D 15D 12D
1.1 to 11 20D 15D 15D 15D
Above 11 25D 20D 20D 15D
Pipe laying
if cable crossing the road, gate, railway track,
water line
Type of pipe: GI, cemented, HDPE pipe
Ends to be sealed to avoid choking, clogging.
Standard depth of pipe: 1m across the road,
1.8 m across railway track.
Standard size of pipe: 1.5 times of cable
Spare pipe: for future expansion , Ends to be
sealed

Bedding
Before and after cable laying and jointing work
is over a bedding of sieved earth or river bed
sand of 100 mm depth both below and above
the cable.
Keep distance between two cable in single
trench.
Avoid zig-zag
Cable under bed/on support
CABLE LAYING IN TRAY
Cable laying on rack
Tagging on cable
Use barricading tape
Cable handling
Cable handling tools
Jack
Roller
Drum trailer
Crimping
tool
Cable installation record
Type of cable and its size
Voltage level
Cable no, drum no.
Date
Rout map, location of cable joint
Installation test record like IR value,
HV test if any

Testing of cable installation
Insulation resistance test
High voltage test
Continuity test
Value
IR value : minimum 1M-ohm/KV
HV test value : minimum 1KV/KV +1
for 5 minutes
Cable testing
Type test
Routine test
Pre-commissioning test
A) for new cable after installation
B) After repairing the breakdown
Insulation resistance test
Before jointing and after
jointing

S
no.
Voltage Test voltage
New installation

Old installation

Recorded
IR value
1 upto1.1KV 500 V dc for 1 min. 1.0KV dc for 1 min.

50M
2 11KV

1.0KV dc for 1 min.

2.5KV dc for 1 min 200M
3 33KV 2.5KV dc for 1 min.

5.0 KV dc for 1 min.

500M

4 66KV 5.0 KV dc for 1 min.

5.0 KV dc for 1 min.

500M

High voltage test value
Sr. Voltage level
of the cable
under test
Test voltage Observed leakage
current (maximum)
New
installation
Old
installation
New
installation
Old
installation
1
upto1.1KV
3KV 660V 0.5mA 2mA

2
11KV
18KV

6.5KV

0.5mA

2mA
3
33KV
60KV

19.5KV

0.5mA

2mA
4
66KV
115KV

38KV 0.5mA

2mA
Cable testing at manufacturers works
a) Tensile Test (For Aluminium Conductor)
b) Wrapping Test (For Aluminium Conductor)
c) Annealing Test (For Copper Conductor)
d) Conductor Resistance Test
e) Test for thickness of Insulation & Sheath
f) High Voltage Test
g) Insulation Resistance Test
h) Tensile Strength & Elongation at break test for
Insulation and Sheath
I) Hot Set Test - (for XLPE Insulation only)
j) Partial Discharge test (for H.T. Screened cable)

Cable short circuit
I
SC
= kA / t
K= Constant
Al -- 0.094 (XLPE)
Cu -- 0.14382 (XLPE)
A - Cross Section Area (mm
2
)
T- Time in seconds

Earthing
Metal screen
(if any) and
armour of
cable to be
earthed.
All metal
pipes in which
cables have
been installed
need to be
earthed.
Corrosion Types Encountered With Power Cables
Anodic Corrosion (Stray
DC Currents)
Cathodic Corrosion
Galvanic Corrosion
Chemical Corrosion
AC Corrosion
Local Cell Corrosion
Other Forms of
Corrosion

Voltage drop calculation

For DC and single phase AC two wire
systems
Voltage drop = (2xIxLxRxt)/1000
Where I = current in ampere
L = length of cable in meter (one conductor
only)
R = resistance of one conductor from table
t = temperature correction factor

Voltage drop ----contd
For three phase AC systems
Voltage drop = (1.732xIxLxRxt)/1000
Note: formula is applied when power factor is
unity. Power factor to be considered in load and
reactance to be considered.
Note:
formula is applied when power factor is unity.
Power factor to be considered in load and
reactance to be considered.

Resistance
Voltage drop value in%
Failure in cable
Internal and surface discharge may result failure of
the insulation.
Proper drying, due to low /bad quality of fluid.
Ingress of moisture and degradation of insulation.
Crack in the sheath, due to abnormal temperature,
electrical stress, mechanical tension.
Voids due to partial discharge.
Overheating, deformation, ionization etc.
NB: permitted size of voids in cable to be 22-25
micron.

Root marker
Aluminium
Cast Iron
Material with
Standard or
Custom design
Fibreglass
Reinforced
Plastic [FRP]

Cable tape
Size:
Length: 5Y, 5m,
10Y, 10m, 20Y,
20m.
Width: 12mm,
15mm. 17mm,
18mm, 19mm,
25mm, 48mm,
50mm.
Cable gland
Type of Cable
Gland Size
Entry Type/Thread
Specification of
application
Ingress Protection
required.
Material

Parts of gland
Type of Gland
A1 and A2 Type Cable
Gland
BW Type Cable Gland
CW Type Cable Gland
Single Compression
Cable Gland
Double Compression
Cable Gland
Flameproof Cable
Glands


E1W Type Cable Gland
Flange Type Cable
Gland
PG Type Cable Gland
Marine Type Cable
Gland
Metric Threaded Cable
Gland
Weather Proof Cable
Glands

Cable ties material
Nylon 66
Nylon 66 UV Stabilized
Nylon 66 Heat Stabilized
Polypropylene
Tefzel
DIN rail and terminal block
De-rating factor
Thermal insulation factors
Ambient temperature
Group factor

Depth of laying
Thermal resistivity

Depth of laying
(cm)
75 90 105 120 150 180
Cable size < 25
sqmm
1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95
Cable size < 300
sqmm
1 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.93
Cable size 300
sqmm
1 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.92 0.91
Busbar
Material :
Aluminium
Copper
Technical specification
Rating Current:3200Amp.
System:415Vac, TPN,
50Hz.
Fault Level:50KA. For 1
Sec.
Operation Temp:40 C
rise over 45 C ambient
Cable entry
Indoor application: Top and bottom both
Outdoor application: Only bottom
Conduit Fittings &
Accessories

Construction:
Galvanized steel,
helically wound, Flexible
Conduit System.
Temp: -50 C to +200 C
Features: Highly
Flexible and mechanical
strength
IP: IP4


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