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dr.

Rohmania Setiarini
Fase menelan
Fase oral
Fase faringeal
Fase esofagal
Fase oral
Sadar
Bolus
Kontraksi m.levator veli palatini palatum mole
&passavants ridge terangkatbolus
terdorong ke posterior penutupan
nasofaring
Kontraksi m.palatoglosusismus fausium
tertutupkontraksi m.palatofaringbolus tdk
balik ke rongga mulut
Oral phase
Movement of the
mandible (masseter,
temporalis, lateral and
medial pterygoid
muscles)
Formation of food into
bolus
Food held
anterolaterally against
the hard palate



Oral phase
Manipulation of food
bolus in central portion of
tongue
Sequential anterior to
posterior tongue elevation
Triggering pharyngeal
reflex as bolus enters
pharyngeal phase
Voluntary phase controlled
by the cerebral cortex
(corticobulbar tract)
Fase faringeal
Reflek
Faringesofagus
Faring&laring bergerak ke atas
Aditus laring tertutup oleh epiglotis
Sfingter laring tertutup
Penghentian aliran udara ke laring
Valekula&sinus piriformis lurusbolus
ke esofagus

Pharyngeal phase
Reflex < 1s
Stimulation of swallowing
receptor areas tonsillar
pillars brain stem
Closure of the nasal part
of the pharynx
Soft palate elevation
levator veli palatini
Pulling forward of the
posterior pharyngeal wall
superior constrictor
muscle
Contraction of the
palatopharyngeal muscle


Pharyngeal phase (contd)
Larynx pulled upward
by contraction of
stylopharyngeus,
salpingopharyngeus,
tyrohyoid and
palatopharyngeus
muscles
Elevation of the larynx
beneath the
posteriorly bulging
tongue displaces the
epiglottis backwards
closure of the larynx

Pharyngeal phase (contd)
Bolus moves
downward over the
epiglottis and reach
lower part of the
pharynx

Relaxation of UOS




Deglutition (Swallowing)
Fase esofagal
Esofaguslambung
Relaksasi m.krikofaringintroitus
esofagus terbuka
Peristaltik esofagus
Sfingter esofagus terbukabolus
lwtsfingter tertutup
Saat istirahat, Sfingter esofagus bag
bwah sll tertutupregurgitasi tdk tjd
Oesophageal phase
Final phase
Involuntary
Peristaltic wave from
UOS to LOS to stomach
continuation of waves
from pharynx,
controlled by skeletal
nerve impulses from IX
and X nerve



Oesophageal phase (contd)
inititated by myenteric
nervous system and
vagal afferent fibres
medulla vagal efferent
Relaxation of LOS
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Laryngeal Anatomy Superior view
Dorsal/Posterior
Ventral/Anterior
True vocal fold
False (ventricular)
fold
esophagus
arytenoid
aryepiglottic fold
epiglottis
glottis
Pyriform sinus
Why does phonation occur?
Aerodynamic-myoelastic theory of phonation
Glottal vibration is the result of an interaction between
aerodynamic forces and vocal fold muscular forces
Three things are necessary and sufficient for phonation
1. Adduction
2. Longitudinal tension (the vocal fold must have an
appropriate amount of tension along its length)
3. Aerodynamic forces (pushing and pulling by air flow
and pressure)
Phonation: Vibrating Mechanism
The vocal cords adduct during phonation (creating of
sound)
The cords vibrate against each other hundreds of times
per second; the number of times they vibrate is known
as frequency and this is measured in Hertz (Hz)

3 major aspects of voice influenced
by vocal fold movement
Pitch - frequency of vibration
the rate of vocal fold vibration is called the
FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY
an increase in pitch involves an increase in frequency (hi
pitch; hi frequency)

the frequency of vocal fold vibration depends on the
mass and length of the vocal folds and the tension
3 major aspects (cont)
Loudness - intensity of sound
involves the amount of energy generated by the vocal
fold movements
intensity increases with increased air pressure from the
lungs and increased amplitude of the vocal fold vibration

Quality - the sound quality of the voice
this is affected by the pattern of movement of the vocal
folds
Resonance: The characteristic quality of
the voice
The speech mechanism is a resonator -- it is like an air-
filled tube (closed on one end and open at the other
end)

the fundamental frequency generated at the vocal folds
is resonated in the vocal tract that is now also vibrating
-- the vibration of the vocal tract is the HARMONIC
FREQUENCY

every body has its own natural frequency
Resonance (cont)
Pharynx is the primary resonator
the 3 parts of the pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx,
laryngopharynx)
the nasopharynx and oropharynx are the 2 resonating
systems
these 2 systems provide resonance to sounds that pass
through the oral and nasal cavities

Physical parts of the vocal system
Creating sound requires numerous muscles,
bones and organs of the body
Three main anatomical aspects:
Actuators: Lungs/diaphragm/intercostal muscles;
these organs deal with breathing/air management
Vibrator: Voice box (larynx); this deals with the
creation of pitch in the form of a sound wave
Resonators: Throat (pharynx), mouth/lips/teeth, nose;
these deal with the modification of sound into tones
Laryngeal Anatomy Superior view
Dorsal/Posterior
Ventral/Anterior
True vocal fold
False (ventricular)
fold
esophagus
arytenoid
aryepiglottic fold
epiglottis
glottis
Pyriform sinus