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PERSONALITY

An individuals unique pattern of thoughts,


feelings, and behaviors that persists over
time and across situations.

Two key components

personality refers to unique
differences.

personality is presumed to be
stable and enduring.
What is Personality?
Personality defined
unique psychological
qualities of an individual that
influence a variety of
characteristic behavior patterns
across different situations and
over time.
People are often confused with two
words
CHARACTER
The overall pattern of
regularly occurring
behavior.
In character, moral
component is more or
moral issues are more.
TEMPERAMENT
Biologically based
characteristic way of
reacting.
The things are inborn
or born with. This has
bee classified into
three
Difficult
Slow to worm up
Easy.
Characteristics of personality
It has both physical and psychological
components.
Its expression in terms of behavior is fairly
unique in a given individual.
Its main features do not easily change with
time.
It is dynamic in the sense that some of its
features may change due to internal
situational demands.
Thus, personality is adaptive to situations.
TYPE
OF
THEORIES
TYPE
AND
TRAIT
APPROACH
DYNAMIC
APPROACH
LEARNING
BEHAVIORAL
APPROACH
HUMANNISTIC
EXTINCTION
APPROACH
Psychodynamic Theories

behavior as a product of psychological forced within the individual, often
outside conscious awareness.
Five propositions common to all psychodynamic theories.

Much of mental life is unconscious.
Mental processes such as emotions, motivations, and thought may conflict
with one another.
Early childhood experiences strongly affect personality development.
Our mental representation of ourselves and others guides our interactions
with others.
Development of personality involves learning to regulate sexual and
aggressive urges.


SIGMUND FREUD

Best known of psychodynamic
theorists.
Freud was first to stress the
unconscious.
The unconscious is all the ideas,
thoughts, and feelings of which we
are normally not aware.
Freuds ideas form the basis for
psychoanalysis.
Three
Parts of
Psychoanalytical
theory
Structure of
personality

Theory of
Personality
dynamics &
ego-defense
mechanism

Theory of
Psycho-sexual
development
Freud: psychoanalysis

Id
Ego
Superego
Id
Collection of unconscious urges and
desired that continually seek
expression
Operates according to the pleasure
principle, i.e., seeks immediate
pleasure and to avoid pain
Operators entirely in the unconscious
mind
Ego

Mediates between reality, conscience
(superego), and instinctual needs (id)
Operates according to the reality
principle
Operates at the conscious,
preconscious, and unconscious levels
Superego
The social and parental standards that
have been internalized
Conscience
Our sense of morality
Ego ideal
The standard of what one would like to
be
We are not born with the superego, but it
develops over time
Operates at the conscious, pre
conscious, and unconscious levels
ID EGO SUPER EGO
NATURE
Represents biological
aspect
Represents
psychological aspect

Represents societal
aspect

CONTRIBUTION
instincts self conscience
TIME
ORIENTATION
Immediate present present

past
LEVEL
unconscious Conscious &
unconscious
Conscious &
unconscious
PRINCIPLE
pleasure reality morality
PURPOSE
Seek pleasure
Avoid pain
Adapt to reality
Know true & false
Represent right &
wrong
AIM
Immediate gratification Safety & compromise perfection
PROCESS
irrational rational illogical
REALITY
subjective
objective
subjective
Comparison of Freuds three SYSTEMS of personality
Diagram of structure of personality
Defense Mechanisms
Anxiety is produced when the ego
cannot satisfy the demands of the id
in a way acceptable to the superego
This anxiety causes feelings of
uneasiness and worry
Ego may employ any of a number of
defense mechanisms to protect the
conscious mind from this anxiety
Repression and Ego Defenses
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Denial of Reality
Displacement
Fantasy
Identification
Isolation
Projection
Rationalization
Repression and Ego Defenses
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Reaction Formation
Regression
Repression
Sublimation

Defense Mechanisms

Denial
Refusal to acknowledge a painful reality.
Repression
Unpleasant thoughts are excluded from consciousness.
Projection
Attributing ones own feelings, motives, or wishes to others.
Identification
Taking on the characteristics of other to avoid feeling incompetent.
Regression
Reverting to childlike behavior.
Intellectualization
Thinking about stressful problems in an abstract way to detach one self
from them
Reaction Formation
Expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are opposite of true
feelings

Defense Mechanisms

Displacement
Shift repressed motives from an original object to a substitute object.
Sublimation
Redirecting repressed motives and feelings into socially acceptable
activities.
Development of personality
Freud believed that personality
development is the results of various
ways in which the instinct (also called
the libido) is satisfied during the
course of life.
There are several stages, each
focusing on different bodily areas.
These stages are called the
psychosexual stages.
Drives and psychosocial
development
Concept of libido
5 stages of Psychosexual
development
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
Oedipus and Electra Complexes
Concept of Fixation
Psychosexual Stages
Oral Stages (birth to 18 months)
Pleasure is obtained by sucking and swallowing
Too much oral stimulation may result in an
overly optimistic, gullible, and dependent adult
Too little stimulation can result in a pessimistic,
sarcastic, argumentative adult
Anal Stages(18months to 3 years)
Focus of pleasure is the anus, especially
controlling bowels
Strict toilet training may result in anal retentive
personality types as adults, i.e., stingy and
excessively orderly
Psychosexual Stages
Phallic Stages (after age 3)
Erotic feelings center on genitals
Boys experience the Oedipal complex wherein
they are strongly attached to their mother and
jealous of their father
Girls experience the Electra complex, bring
strongly attached to their father and jealous of
their mother
These complexes are usually resolved by
identification with the same-sex parent
Fixation at this stages may result in vanity and
egotism in adult life
Psychosexual Stages
Latency Stages (5 or 6 to 12 or 13)
Child appears to have no interest in
the another sex
Genital Stages (begins at puberty)
Final stages marked by
development of mature sexuality
Criticisms of psychodynamic
theories
Culture-bound ideas
Freud made no connection between
womens subordinate status in society
and their sense of inferiority.
Psychodynamic theories are largely
untestable in any scientific way.
Post-Freudian theories or other
psychoanalytical theories
Alfred Adler
Inferiority and Superiority
Individual psychology: the Creative self
Karen Horney
Carl Jung
Collective Unconscious
Archetypes
Analytic psychology.





Carl Jung
Shared Freuds emphasis on unconscious
processes
Personal unconscious
That part of the unconscious mind
containing an individuals thoughts and
feelings.
Collective unconscious
The part of the unconscious that is
inherited and common to all members of a
species.
Archetypes
Ideas/ categories in the collective
unconscious
Examples of archetypes
Persona
Our public self
Anima
Female archetype as expressed in male personality
Animus
Male archetype as expressed in female personality.
Attitude Types
Extroverts
Focus on external world and social life
Introverts
Focus on internal thoughts and feelings
Jung felt that everyone had both
qualities, but one is usually dominant.
Personality Types
Rational individuals
People who regulate their actions
through thinking and feeling
Irrational individuals
People who base their actions on
perceptions, either through their
senses or intuition
Alfred Adler
Compensation
Our efforts to overcome real or
perceived weaknesses
Inferiority complex
Fixation on feelings of personal
inferiority that can to emotional and
social paralysis

Karen Horney
Viewed anxiety as a powerful
motivating force
Environmental and social factors
important seen as being as important
as unconscious sexual conflict
Neurotic trends
Irrational strategies for coping with
emotional problems

Learning & Behavioral Theory
Learning & behavioral theories were
made based on classical & operant
conditioning
Based on assumptions


The behavior which
make our personality
are based on
learning &
conditioned
An individual
current environment
maintain his or her
behavior
Difference b/w Learning theorist view & Psychoanalytical
theorist view
Learning theories view Psychoanalytical theorist
view
Learning theorist
emphasized on current
environment
Learning theorist said
that internal factors are
also influential while
studying behavior
The concepts were
scientifically proved
Psychoanalytical
theorist emphasized on
viewer dynamics
Theorist main focus
was on sex & women

The concepts were not
scientifically proved

Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
Hold that people behavior is guided by
thought, expectancies, learning, and the
environment
Expectancies
What a person anticipates in a situation or
as a result of behaving in certain ways
Performance standards
Individually determined standards by
which to judge ones own behavior


Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
Self-Efficacy
Expectancy that ones efforts will be
successful
Locus of control
Expectancy about whether reinforcement
is under internal or external control.

Criticisms Of Cognitive-Social Learning
Theories
Affirms role of cognition in development of
personality
Focuses on conscious behavior and
experience
Can be studied scientifically
Has led to many useful therapies
Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories
Walter Mischels Cognitive-Affective
personality Theory
Encodings
Expectancies and beliefs
Affects
Goal and values
Competencies and elf-regulatory plans
Social-Learning and cognitive Theories
Bunduras Cognitive Social Learning Theory:
Reciprocal Determinism
Person
Behavior
Environment
Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories
Banduras Cognitive Social Learning
Theory: Self-efficacy

PERSON
BEHAVIOR OUTCOME
EFFICACY
EXPECTATIONS
OUTCOME
EXPECTATIONS
TYPE THEORY
Type theory was
divided into two-
Type A
Type B
Type
Theory
Type
A
Type
B
Type A
Are always moving, walking, and eating
rapidly;
Feel impatient with the rate at which most
events take place;
Strive to think or do two or more things at
once;
Cannot cope with leisure time;
Are obsessed with numbers, measuring
their success in terms of how many or how
much of everything they acquire.
Type B
Never suffer from a sense of time urgency
with its accompanying impatience;
Feel no need to display or discuss either
their achievements or accomplishments;
Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to
exhibit their superiority at any cost;
Can relax without guilt.
Type Approach
The Greek Physician Hippocrates has
proposed a typology of personality
based on fluid or humour.
He classified people into four
Temperament
i. Sanguine
ii. Phlegmatic
iii. Melancholic
iv. Choleric

Type Approach
i. Sanguine- somebody who is very
cheerful, optimistic and confident.
ii. Melancholic- somebody who is very
depressed
iii. Choleric- somebody who is very hot-
tempered
iv. Phlegmatic- somebody who is very slow.
Erik Erickson
Eight stages of personality development
Trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Ego integrity vs. despair
Criticism of Type Theory

About the mythology reliability, there was
no agreement among the observers.
People questioned the consistency. This
increased the importance of situation.
Trait
The most central concept in personality
psychology is the trait.
A trait is a relatively stable predisposition
to behave in a certain way.
Trait are part of the person, not the
environment.
Do Traits Predict Behaviors?
Consistency Paradox
Personality ratings are consistent
while behavior ratings are not
Trait Theory
The goal of trait theory is to specify a
manageable set of distinct personality
dimension that can be used to summarize
the fundamental psychological differences
among individuals.
Examples of trait approaches-
Gordon Allports list of approximately 4500
traits
Raymond Cattell's reduction to 16
personality factors
Hans Eysencks three-factors model
Allports Trait Theory
Gordon Allport is considered the pioneer of trait
approach
He proposed that individuals possesses a
number of traits, which are dynamic in nature.
They determine behavior in such a manner that
an individual approaches different situations with
similar plans. The traits integrates stimuli and
responses which otherwise look dissimilar
Allport categorized traits into-
1. Cardinal trait
2. Central trait
3. Secondary trait
Allports Trait Theory
Cardinal trait-
These are highly generalized dispositions. They indicate goal
around which a persons entire life seems to revolve: e.g.
Mahatma Gandhi's nonviolence & Hitler's Nazism
Such traits are often get associated with name of the person so
strongly that they derive identities
Central trait-
These traits (e.g. warm, sincere, diligent, etc) are often used in
writing a testimonial or job recommendation for a person.
Secondary trait-
The least generalized characteristics of a person are called
secondary trait.
Trait such as like mangoes or prefers ethnic clothes are
examples of secondary trait.

Factor Theory Of Raymond Cattell
Raymond Cattell believed that there is a common structure on
which people differ from each other.
He tried to identify the primary traits from a huge array of
descriptive adjectives found in language. He applied a statistical
technique called factor analysis to discover the common structures.
He found 16 primary or source trait. The source traits are stable
and a considered as the building blocks of personality.
There are also a number of surface traits that result out of the
interaction of source traits.
Cattell describe source traits in terms of opposing tendencies.



Single Trait Research
Basically researchers focus o trait.
For e.g.-locus of control

Locus of control
External locus of control Internal locus of control
Locus Of Control
The degree to which people believe
they are masters of their own fate.
Internals
Individuals who believe that they
control what happens to them.
Externals
Individuals who believe that what
happens to them is controlled by
outside forces such as luck or
chance.
New Approach Of studying
Personality
Five-Factors Model (Big Five) Or
There Are 5 Key Dimension Of
Personality.
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Neuroticism
Openness to experience

Five Big Factors Of Personality
Extraversion:
Sociable or retiring
fun-loving or somber
affectionate or reserved
Conscientiousness:
Organized or
disorganized careful or
careless disciplined or impulsive
Emotional stability:
Calm or anxious
secure or insecure
self-satisfied or self-pitying
Openness:
Imaginative or practical
interested in variety or routine
independent or conforming
Agreeableness:
Softhearted or ruthless
trusting or suspicious
helpful or uncooperative
Are The Big Five Traits Universal?
Evidence point to the presence of the
big five traits across cultures
Findings suggest a genetic basis for
traits
Criticism Of Trait Theories
Unlike some other theories, trait
theories can be studied scientifically
Merely descriptive
Traits represent statistical averages of
populations rather than individuals
Disagreement over minimum number
of traits needed to fully describe
variety of human behavior