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# UNDERSTANDING

REFRIGERATIONS
RELATED PHYSICS
IN
REFRIGERATIONS
REFRIGERATIONS
 Process of
reducing and
maintain the
temperature
REFRIGERATIONS

EXCHANGE OF HEAT
TRANSFER OF HEAT FROM A
SPACE TO REFRIGERANT AND
VICE VERSA
LE SYSTEME INTERNATIONAL
d’UNITES (SI)
 Mass
- amount of material
in a substance
measure in grams or
kilograms
SI
 Force
- a push or pull

Weight
- measure of the force
exerted on the body by
the gravitational pull of
the earth
SI
 Kilogram force (kgf)
- the force of gravity of
an object having a mass
of 1 kg

 Newton
- mass 1kg, acceleration
1 m/s2

SI
 Pressure
- force per unit
area
P = f/a
PRESSURE
 kgf/cm2
 Pascal (Pa)

##  Pound per square

inch (psi)
PRESSURE
 The deeper the more
pressure
 The pressure is the
weight of column of
water above the
diver
PRESSURE
 Atmospheric
pressure – layer of
gas around the earth
thickness
 Agreed unit of
pressure is Pascal
(Pa) or bar
 0 meter, 1bar=1atm
MANIFOLD GAUGE
 A device for
measuring:
– pressure
– temperature
GAUGE
 Pressure
 Temperature

 Refrigerant

 0 b = 1atm
 absolute pressure =
gauge pressure +
atmospheric pressure
QUIZ
 If atmospheric
pressure is 1 b, why
is the gauge show 0
at rest?

 relative pressure or
gauge pressure
THE PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE
RELATIONSHIP
 In a balloon there is
two pressure:
– Internal pressure
– External pressure or
atmospheric pressure
Pressure-Temperature
 At atmospheric
pressure the
internal and
external pressure
is equivalent
 Pressure uniformly
distributed
Pressure-Temperature
 Increase the
internal pressure
and the water start
to boil
 At 1 b pressure, the
temperature is 100
°C
Pressure-Temperature
 External pressure
smaller – 0.7 b
 The internal
pressure need less
pressure to
overcome external
pressure
 At 0.7 b external,
water boil at 90°C
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
 Every time the pressure changes, the
temperature also changes
 At every pressure, there is a
corresponding boiling point

##  Thisis call pressure-temperature

relationship
CONVERSIONS
CONVERSIONS
HEAT
A SENSATION OF TEMPERATURE
DIFFERENTS
 BRAIN IS MAKING COMPARISON
BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF HEAT

##  Thepalm of our hand is between

30°C~33°C
UNIT OF HEAT
 Calorie (cal)
-1g water, 1°C = 1 cal
 Joule (J)

## - 1g water, 1°C = 4.187J

 British thermal unit (Btu)

CONVERSIONS
HEAT TRANSFER

##  Water and air

“touch” indirectly
 Heat passes from
hotter to colder
HEAT TRANSFER

##  The amount of heat

gained by the air is
exactly equal to that
lost by the water
HEAT TRANSFER
 Only if there is
temperature
difference
 Heat always flows from
the hotter body to the
colder body

##  In financial industry, the rich

didn’t always give to the poor
BOILING OF WATER

##  Water boil at 100°C

 If we keep boiling,
temperature of
water will stabilizes
BOILING OF WATER
CHANGE OF STATE
 Liquid state to
gaseous state
(steam)
 The water vaporizes

 The temperature
does not increase
further…
BOILING OF WATER
 Temperature
increase from t0 –
t2
BOILING OF WATER
 At t2-t3, the
temperature is 100°C
 Changing from liquid to
vapor
 When liquid evaporates,
it absorb heat- latent
heat of vaporization
0°C
 0°C, Ice melting
 Temperature
constant - fusion
0°C
0°C, Ice melting
 t0-t1 – solid state
to liquid state
0°C
 No more ice
 Temperature start
to increase
0°C - 100°C
 Temperature t2
=100 °C
 Latent heat of
fusion –solid to liquid
CONCLUSION
 Water changes from solid to liquid at
constant temperature 0°C by absorbing
heat – LATENT HEAT OF FUSION
 Water changes from liquid to vapor at
constant temperature 100°C by
absorbing heat – LATENT HEAT OF
VAPORISATION
CONCLUSION
 Toevaporate, water needs energy
(heat)
AMOUNT OF HEAT
AMOUNT OF HEAT
2 and 4 - latent heat
 1,3 and 5 - sensible heat
REFRIGERANTS
REFRIGERANT
A heat carrier
 Working fluid to vaporizes and
condenses as it absorb/gives off heat
 Types of refrigerant

- primary
- secondary
PRIMARY REFRIGERANT
 Refrigerant used in vapor compression
systems
 Halocarbon

## - contain chlorine, fluorine and bromine

PRIMARY REFRIGERANT
 Inorganic compound
- an early refrigerants
PRIMARY REFRIGERANT
 Hydrocarbon
- suitable for petroleum and petrochemical industry
REFRIGERANT 22
 FREON 22
 FORANE 22

 SUVA 22

 Monochlorodifluoromethane
CHCLF2

##  Whatever the names is, R22

evaporates at -42°C at
atmospheric pressure
REFRIGERANT 22
 CHCLF2 – 2 atoms of fluorine
- 1 atoms of hydrogen + 1

CCL2F2
- 2 atoms of fluorine
- 0 atoms of hydrogen + 1
- R 12
REFRIGERANT 22
REFRIGERANT 22
QUIZ
 Why do you think
-42°C at 0 bar?

 At atmospherics
pressure R22
evaporates at -42°C
DANGER!
REFRIGERANTS
 Selection
- inexpensive
- nonpoisonous
- non corrosive
- non flammable
- stable
- high latent heat of vaporization
- easy to condense and vaporize
- easy to detect leaks
SELECTIONS
REPLACEMENT
 ODP
 GWP

 Compositions
REPLACEMENT
SECONDARY
REFRIGERANTS
 Fluid that carry heat from a substance
being cooled to the evaporator
 Change in temperature but does not
change phase
 Water

 Brines

##  Anti freezes – solution of water and

glycol or calcium chloride
REFRIGERATING MACHINE
&
CYCLE
HEAT TRANSFER
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
 1.Evaporator
 2. Compressor

 3. Condenser

 4. Expansion device
Evaporator
 Evaporate the
refrigerant in the
tube
 Changes from liquid to
vapor
 Absorbed heat from
the surrounding
 Cooling
Evaporator
 1. evaporator inlet
 2. evaporator outlet

 3. tube

 4. fin

 An evaporator must
be exposed to the
space to absorbed
heat
Compressor
 To compress the
refrigerant
 Increase pressure
and temperature
 Lp - cold
 Hp - hot
Condenser
 The condenser is hotter
than the ambient
temperature
 Hotter temperature
always give up heat
Condenser
 1. condenser inlet
 2. condenser outlet
 3. tube
 4. fin

 Vapor to liquid
Expansion device
 Connect condenser
and evaporator
 Drop the pressure
from hp to lp thus
dropping the
temperature
Expansion device
 Capillary tube
 Thin copper tube
 Interior diameter
and length is fixed
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
refrigerator
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
refrigerator
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
refrigerator
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
refrigerator
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
operation

##  R22 enter evaporator as liquid

 Room heat will “evaporates” the R22

##  Room will become colder

REFRIGERATION CYCLE
operation

##  R22 is vaporize by the interior room heat

 R22 vapor then “suct” by the compressor
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
operation

##  R22 enter condenser as hp vapor

 Hot R22 gives up heat to the ambient – “condensation”
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
operation

##  At condenser outlet vapor had turn to liquid

 Hp liquid will enter the expansion valve
WINDOW UNIT
WINDOW UNIT
WINDOW UNIT
SPLIT UNIT
SPLIT UNIT - internal
SPLIT UNIT - external
SPLIT UNIT
OPERATING CONDITION - hp

 High pressure
16.3b
 High
temperature
45°C
OPERATING CONDITION - lp
 Low pressure 4.8b
 Low temperature 5°C
NORMAL OPERATING
CONDITION
REFRIGERATION
COMPONENTS
&
ACCESSORIES
the role of COMPRESSOR
 A temperature of a
trapped compress air
in a bicycle pump will
increase

 Compression of a gas
causes an increase in
pressure and
temperature
COMPRESSOR
 1. intake – lp
 2. outlet – hp

 3. lp valve

 4. hp valve

 5. piston

 6. cylinder

 7. connecting rod

 8. eccentric crank
COMPRESSOR
 A. bdc
 B. piston move up to
compress
COMPRESSOR
 9. valve plate
 Pressure stable
COMPRESSOR
 pressure at 6 is
greater than hp
 Compression
COMPRESSION

##  The valves are controlled by the refrigerant

itself
COMPRESSION
B-C. piston rises
 when the pressure
in the cylinder is
greater than hp, the
valve open
COMPRESSION
 D. tdc
 The pressure at hp is
equal to the cylinder
 Valve close

##  Note: clearance space is the gap between tdc and

the piston head so that the piston will not knock the
valve
COMPRESSION

##  The piston move up and down

 The compression continues lp to hp
COMPRESSOR - rotary
- compact and light
- less vibration and noise
- low power consumption
- high durability

technology is required
- an accumulator required
COMPRESSOR - scroll
- little fluctuation of torque
- low vibration and noise
- less gas leak and high efficiency
- no suction and discharge, high
durability
required; accuracy of few micron
units
- more components than rotary
COMPRESSOR - reciprocating
- no accumulator is required
- vibration are not transmitted
outside
- rotation of both side possible
- heavy weight
- large volume
ROTARY
SCROLL
RECIPROCATING
SCREW
 Male and female
gears
 Three step;
- suction
- compress
- discharge
CENTRIFUGAL
 Impeller and volute
 High speed ±10000rpm

 Centrifugal force
change the gaseous
refrigerant into speed
energy, then
converted to pressure
energy for
compression
HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT EXCHANGER – slit fins
efficiency
 Compact and light

 Low resistance to
airflow, reduce noise
HEAT EXCHANGER –
corrugated fins
 Simple structure
 Low cost
HEAT EXCHANGER – spine fins
 High reliability
against gas leak with
less brazing sections
 Condenser can be
design freely
TUBE - hairpin
 Smooth pipe

 Spiral pipe
METERING DEVICES
 Hand expansion valve
 Automatic expansion
valve
 Thermostatic
expansion valve
 Capillary tube

##  Low pressure float

Expansion device – capillary tube
 1 and 2 same length
 2 is smaller
 1 and 3 same
diameter
 3 is longer
Expansion device – capillary tube
 Pressure at 1 is low
 Pressure at 2 is greater

##  The flow depend on –

dimension and length
 Pressure different
between hp and lp
Expansion device – capillary tube
Expansion device – capillary tube
Expansion device – capillary tube
 Compression is
increasing the
pressure and
temperature
 Expansion is
decreasing the
pressure and
temperature
REFRIGERANT PIPE
 Discharge line
- normally the same size of liquid line
- any increase of pressure drop will be a
penalty to the compressor
 Liquid line
- carry liquid
- smaller size
 Suction line
- bigger size
- carry vapor to compressor
 Between condenser and
expansion valve
 Act as a liquid supply to
the expansion valve and
storage
 Quiz; Do not use lr in
capillary systems. Why?

##  During off cycle, liquid

will travel to evaporator
through cap tube – when
start up, liquid
compression
FILTER DRYER
 Remove moisture and
particles of foreign
object

##  Quiz; Why moisture?

 Cap tube stopped up
by ice
 Hydrochloric acid
will corrodes metal
 Copper plating
ACCUMULATOR
 Prevent liquid from
entering the
compressor
 The refrigerant oil
will return through
small hole at the
bottom of the
suction pipe
MUFFLER
 At discharge line
 To break up
pressure pulses that
create noise
SOLENOID VALVE
 Use to open or
close by energizing
on and off
CHECK VALVE
 Allow
refrigerant to
flow in one
direction only
HIGH PRESSURE SWITCH
 Install at discharge pipe
 Stop when there is
abnormal high pressure
 Bellow
 Diaphragm
LOW PRESSURE SWITCH
 Install at suction
pipe
 Stop when there is
abnormal low
pressure