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INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

CHEMICAL BONDS

Lecturer: Dr. Hoang Le Son


Course title: Organic Chemistry
Group: 2
GROUP 2

• Trần Triệu Quân – BTUN08027


• Huỳnh Hải Vân – BTIU08080
• Lê Thị Trúc My – BTWE08016
• Phạm Thị Ngọc Thúy – BTIU08065
• Nguyễn Bảo Ngọc – BTUN08052
• Nguyễn Quang Huy – BTWE08012
OUTLINE
I. Introduction:
- Chemical bonds – Classification.
- Octet Rule – Valence electron – Electronegativity.
- Bond length – Bond strength.
II. Important chemical bonds:
- Ionic bond
- Covalent bond.
- Comparison between Ionic bond and Covalent bond.
- Hydrogen bond.
III. Summary:

IV. Reference:
I. INTRODUCTION
I. INTRODUCTION
• Definition: Chemical bond is link between atoms of two or more
elements by mutual attraction.

• Purpose:
Chemical bond influences to the nature of chemical compounds.
- Physical properties: effects to the solubility, the melting and
boiling point, etc …
- Chemical properties: makes the bonds become long or short,
weak or strong, etc ….
CLASSIFICATION

Important
chemical
bonds.
OCTET RULE
The Octet rule: says that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have eight electrons in their
outermost energy level and obtain stable configuration of noble gas.

Metals tend to lose


electrons to obey the
Octet rule and
become Cations.

A neutral sodium atom and a positively


charged sodium ion after sodium loses
the one electron in its outer orbital.
OCTET RULE

It is easy for nonmetal


to gain electron to
have full outermost
energy level and
become Anions.

A neutral chlorine atom becomes


negatively charged chlorine ion after
gaining the one electron in its outer
orbital.
VALENCE ELECTRONS
 Electrons in the outermost energy level

Ex: Na is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 outer energy level is 1

 Valence electrons Bond pairs


Lone pairs
Ex:

••
Na Cl ••
••
lone pair
bond pair
VALENCE ELECTRONS

The number of valence electron is the group number A


ELECTRONEGATIVITY
• Definition: A measure of the force of an atom’s attraction for
electrons which are bonded with the electrons of another atom.

• Classification in Electronegativity:
The difference of electronegativity determine type of chemical bond.

0.0 → 0.3: Non-polar covalent


0.3 → 1.7: Polar covalent
1.7 → 4.0: Ionic bond
ELECTRONEGATIVITY
BOND STRENGTH – BOND LENGTH

Bond strength

• The strength with which a chemical bond holds two atoms


together.

• The stronger bond need more dissociation energy to break it.


BOND STRENGTH – BOND LENGTH

Bond length:

The distance between


two bonded atoms at
their minimum
potential energy.
BOND STRENGTH – BOND LENGTH

Bond length
• Determine the overall size and shape of a molecule.

Longer bonds are weaker than


shorter bonds.

Multiple bonds are shorter and


stronger than their single
bond counterparts.
BOND STRENGTH – BOND LENGTH

Example:

Bond Bond strength Bond length


(Kcal/mol) (pm)
Ethane C—C 90 154
(CH3CH3)
Ethylene C—C 174 134
(CH2= CH2)
II. IMPORTANT
CHEMICAL BONDS
IONIC BOND
IONIC BOND

Definition: An ionic bond is bond formed when one or more


electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
 Extremely strong bond.

Ex: NaCl, AlCl3, MgO, CaCl2, K2O…


IONIC BOND
Formation:
Anions and Cations which have opposite charges will attract
one each other by electrostatic forces.
The forces of this attraction are
called Ionic bonds
Ionic bonds are between
metals and nonmetals.

In Ionic bond, the electrons are


not shared, as the anion steals the
electrons from the cation.
IONIC BOND

The summary of ionic bond formation contains 3 steps:


• The removal of an electron(s) by one element.
• The gain of an electron(s) by second element.
• The attaction between oppositely charged
ions.
IONIC BOND
Example:

Consider the reaction of


Sodium and Chlorine.
IONIC BOND

Properties:

• Metals and nonmetals.


• Transfer of electrons.
• Oppositely charged ions.
• Electrostatic attraction.
IONIC COMPOUNDS
Definition: Ionic compound is a chemical compound in which
ions are held together in a lattice structure by ionic bonds.

In any sample of ionic compound, the positive charges of the


cations must equal to the negative charges of the anions.

Lattice structure of
Sodium Chloride Iron oxide
sodium chloride
IONIC COMPOUNDS
Properties of ionic compounds:

State: solid
Crystal pattern: every ion is attracted to
all other ions with the opposite charge
and repulsions are minimized, resulting
a well-defined crystal.
IONIC COMPOUNDS
Properties of ionic compounds:
High melting point and boiling point
Solubility: are soluble in water and many polar solvents.

Conductivity: ionic compound can conduct electricity when it


dissolves in water or melts.
COVALENT BOND
COVALENT BOND
Definition: Covalent bonds are generated between two or more
atoms by sharing electrons.

Formation
Each atom contributes one electron to a shared electron pair to
attain stable configuration for each atom.
COVALENT BOND
Example: Dihydrogen

Two hydrogen atoms are connected each other by sharing two


valance electrons of each atom.
COVALENT BOND
Another example: Water

An oxygen atom which has two unpaired electrons in its outer shell and two
hydrogen atoms which also have two valence electrons attract each other to
form two covalent bonds by sharing electrons.
COVALENT BOND

Properties

• Generated by sharing electrons, not transferring


• Formed between nonmetals
• Formed between atoms of the same elements or different
elements.
POLAR VS. NONPOLAR BOND
Nonpolar bond
• The electron pair is equally shared.
• The bond is usually formed by identical atoms.
• The bond is not polarized.
Example:

H2 O2
POLAR VS. NONPOLAR BOND
Polar bond
• The electron pair is not equally shared.
• The bond is usually formed by different electronegative atoms.
• The bond is polarized because it has one positive end and one
negative end.
•The share electron pair is shifted from the center and pulled away
from one atom.
Example: HCl, H2O

HCl H2O
POLAR VS. NONPOLAR BOND

NON POLAR BOND POLAR BOND

• Not equally shared


• Equally shared • Different elements
• Same elements
• Shorter bonds
• Longer bond
• Stronger bonds
• Weaker bonds
POLAR VS. NONPOLAR LIQUID

NON POLAR LIQUID POLAR LIQUID

Dissolve better in Dissolve better in


other non polar other polar liquid and
liquid ionic salts
COVALENT BOND
Single bond:
- Have a one pair of shared electrons
Multiple bonds:
- include double bond and triple bond.
- more than one pair of shared electrons.
Example: O2, N2

O2 N2
MOLECULAR GEOMETRY

VSEPR
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsiontheory
SOME COMMON GEOMETRIES
Linear

180o apart

H Be H

2 hydrogen atoms bonded to central atom


SOME COMMON GEOMETRIES
Trigonal Planar

120o apart
SOME COMMON GEOMETRIES

Tetrahedral

109.50 apart
IONIC BOND
vs
COVALENT BOND
IONIC BOND VS. COVALENT BOND

IONIC BOND COVALENT BOND

Totally transfer Sharing electrons


electrons from one between the atoms
atom to another Nonmetals
Metals and
nonmetals
Single & Multiple
Single bond bond
IONIC BOND VS. COVALENT BOND

IONIC BOND COVALENT BOND

 Crystalline solids  Gases, liquids or


 High melting and solids
boiling point  Low melting and
 Good electrical boiling point
conductor  Poor conductor of
 Often soluble in electricity and heat
water but not in  Often soluble in
carbon tetracloride carbon tetracloride
but not in water
HYDROGEN BOND
HYDROGEN BOND
Definition:
A hydrogen bond forms when a hydrogen atom
covalently bonded to an electronegative atom.

Not be confused hydrogen bond with a covalent bond


to hydrogen atom!!!
HYDROGEN BOND

What do you need?

o A hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a high electronegative


atom … usually N, O or F.

o A lone pair of electrons on the electronegative atom.

If only one of these conditions is satisfied, you don’t get


hydrogen bond!!!
HYDROGEN BOND

Give me an example!

ammonia, NH3 …

This does have hydrogen bond.


Nitrogen is very electronegative, and it has one lone pair of
electrons in ammonia.
HYDROGEN BOND
Example!

Water

Oxygen atom is very electronegative, and it has two lone pairs of


electrons in water. Two hydrogen bonds are formed by the attraction
between the oxygen atom carrying negative charge and hydrogen atoms
covalently bonded with other oxygen atoms.
IMPORTANCE OF HYDROGEN BOND
- Explain the properties of water.
- Hydrogen bond plays a very important part in complementary
base-paring which is essential for the proper functioning of DNA.
SUMMARY
SUMMARY
IONIC BOND AND COVALENT BOND:
SUMMARY
HYDROGEN BOND
Importance:
-The properties of water and ice
- Protein and nucleic acid
WEBSITES:
http://chemlab.truman.edu/CHEM121Labs/MM1Files/TrigonalPlanar.gif
HYDROGEN BOND
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/203bh3.gif
http://www.ausetute.com.au/namiform.html
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/10611490/Introduction-to-Ionic-Bonds
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/ionic.html
http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/ankush85-180239-ionic-bonding-ions-eleme
http://iss.cet.edu/electricity/pages/b11.xml
http://www.sb.fsu.edu/~fajer/Education/2010/Lectures/3_Chemical_Bonds.htm
HYDROGEN
BOOKS: BOND
- Bruice PY, 2003, Organic Chemistry, 4th edition, Prentice
Hall
- Draganova K and Springer S, 2006, Fundamental
Chemistry for the Life Sciences, 3rd edition, International
University Bremen
- Philip M, 2009, Essential Chemistry: Chemical bonds,
Chelsea House