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By

P. NAGA LATHA
Reg. No: 119Y1D0408

Under the esteemed guidance of
Sri P.SREENIVAS
M.Tech.

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
K.S.R.M COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
ABSTRACT
The Project works with the reanalysis of
Structural modification of a beam element based on
natural frequencies using polynomial regression method.
This method deals with the characteristics of frequency
of a vibrating system and the procedures that are available
for the modification of physical parameters of vibrating
structural system. The method is applied on a simple
cantilever beam structure and T-structure for approximate
structural dynamic reanalysis. Results obtained from the
assumed conditions of the problem indicates the high
quality approximation of natural frequencies using finite
element method and regression method.



INTRODUCTION
Most optimal design procedures are iterative
and require repeated analyses of structures obtained by
progressive modifications in design variables. Reanalysis
methods are intended to analyze efficiently structures that
are modified due to changes in the design. The object is to
evaluate the structural modification within the frame of
vibration analysis technology refers to a technique to
modify physical properties of a structure in order to change
or optimize its dynamic properties. For such changes
without solving the complete set of modified simultaneous
equations is evaluated by using the solution procedures.
Multiple repeated analyses are needed in various problems.
REANALYSIS
Reanalysis methods are intended to analyze efficiently
new designs using information from previous ones.
One of the many advantages of the substructure
technique is the possibility of repeating the analysis
for one or more of the substructures making use of the
work done on the others .This represents a significant
saving of time when modifications ones are required.
Modification is invariably required in iterative
processes for optimum design never the less, in the
case of large structure the expenses are still too high.

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical method
for solving a differential or integral equation. It has been
applied to a number of physical problems, where the
governing differential equation are available. The method
essentially consists of assuming the piecewise continuous
function for the solution and obtaining the parameters of
the functions in a manner that reduces the error in the
solution.
For problems involving complex shapes, material
properties and complicated boundary conditions, it is
difficult and in many cases intractable to obtain analytical
solutions. Numerical methods provide approximate but
acceptable solutions to such problems.
Finite element analysis is one of such numerical procedure
for analyzing and solving wide range of complex
engineering problems (may be structural, heat conduction,
flow field...) which are complicated to be solved
satisfactorily by any of the available classical analytical
methods.

REGRESSION ANALYSIS
The Statistical determination of the relationship
between two or more dependent variables has been
referred to as a correlation analysis, whereas the
determination of the relationship between
dependent and independent variables has come to
be known as a regression analysis.
The polynomial equation for regression method,


The polynomial regression method is used for
obtaining natural frequencies of cantilever beam and
T-structure by varying width and depth for dynamic
reanalysis.
VIBRATIONS
Vibration is a mechanical condition where
oscillation develops around an equilibrium point.
These oscillations can be either periodic like a
pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire
on a road. Vibration can be desirable like musical
instruments or speakers in a sound system, or more
often it is undesirable. The vibrations of engines,
electrical motors are unwanted and basically it is a
sign of energy being wasted.






FORMULATION OF FREE VIBRATION PROBLEM
The general equation of vibration can be written as

Where Neglecting the damping coefficient c=0

Let




Vibrating System

CASE STUDIES
Physical properties
The physical properties of the beam for the both case
studies are taken as follows:







Natural frequencies of both cantilever beam and
T structure are calculated by considering the following
situations:
Increasing the depth(d) of the beam alone by 5%
Increasing the breadth(b) and depth(d) of the beam by 5%
Decreasing the depth(d) of the beam alone by 5%
Decreasing the breadth(b) and depth(d) of the beam by 5%

Youngs modulus(E) 0.207 N/m
Density() 7806 Kg/m
Length(l) 0.45m
Breadth(b) 0.02m
Depth(d) 0.003m

The both case studies in this project are as follows

Case Studies
ANSYS
Modal Analysis
ANSYS 10.0
SOFTWARE
CONVENTIONAL
EQUATIONS
Equations of
Natural Frequencies
Reanlysis of the
Results using
polynomial
regression method
FEM
Formation of
Stiffness and Mass
matrices
Eigen values are
obtained using
MATLAB Software,
Natural Frequencies
are calculated.
Reanlysis of the
Results using
polynomial
regression method
Case Study 1
ANSYS
Modal Analysis:
Modal analysis computes the natural frequencies and
mode shapes of the structure. The natural frequencies are
the frequencies at which a structure will tend to vibrate if
subjected to a disturbance. For example, the strings of a
piano are each tuned to vibrate at a specific frequency. The
deformed shape at a specific natural frequency is called the
mode shape. Modal analysis is also called as Eigen values
analysis.
Procedure for modal analysis in ANSYS

Build the model of cantilever beam as shown in figure.
Define the material properties such as youngs modulus
and density etc.,
Apply boundary conditions
Enter the ANSYS solution processor in which analysis
type is taken as modal analysis, and by taking mode
extraction method, by defining number of modes to be
extracted.
Solve the problem using current LS command from the
tool bar.
Here Eigen value reanalysis of cantilever beam has been
carried out for the four situations and the results are
tabulated .
From ANSYS the result for natural frequency for
increasing the depth of the cantilever beam for one
value

For Increasing and decreasing the depth(d) of the beam
alone by 5%
Increasing Decreasing


Breadth(b) Depth(d)
Natural
frequency
in Hz
0.02 0.003 12.325
0.02 0.00315 12.941
0.02 0.0033 13.557
0.02 0.00345 14.174
0.02 0.0036 14.79
0.02 0.00375 15.403
0.02 0.0039 16.022
0.02 0.00405 16.635
0.02 0.0042 17.255
0.02 0.00435 17.871
0.02 0.0045 18.487
Breadth(b) Depth(d)
Natural
frequency
in Hz
0.02 0.003 12.325
0.02 0.00285 11.709
0.02 0.0027 11.093
0.02 0.00255 10.476
0.02 0.0024 9.8600
0.02 0.00225 9.2437
0.02 0.0021 8.6276
0.02 0.00195 8.0113
0.02 0.0018 7.3951
0.02 0.00165 6.7784
0.02 0.0015 6.1626
For Increasing and Decreasing the breadth(b) and
depth(d) of the beam by 5%
Increasing Decreasing
Breadth(b) Depth(d)
Natural
frequency
in Hz
0.02 0.003 12.325
0.021 0.00315 12.941
0.022 0.0033 13.557
0.023 0.00345 14.174
0.024 0.0036 14.79
0.025 0.00375 15.403
0.026 0.0039 16.022
0.027 0.00405 16.635
0.028 0.0042 17.255
0.029 0.00435 17.871
0.03 0.0045 18.487
Breadth(b) Depth(d)
Natural
frequency
in Hz
0.02 0.003 12.325
0.019 0.00285 11.709
0.018 0.0027 11.093
0.017 0.00255 10.476
0.016 0.0024 9.8600
0.015 0.00225 9.2437
0.014 0.0021 8.6276
0.013 0.00195 8.0113
0.012 0.0018 7.3951
0.011 0.00165 6.7784
0.01 0.0015 6.1626
Free Vibration Analysis of Beams using
Conventional Equations
The conventional equations for cantilever beam based on the
mode shapes are given as follows:










The first three undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes of cantilever beam
The first natural frequencies are obtained using conventional
equation and the reanalysis of the beam is done by using
polynomial regression method and the percentage errors are
listed in the tabular column.
Increasing the depth(d) of the beam alone by 5%
First natural frequencies of cantilever beam from
polynomial regression for Increasing the depth(d) alone by
5% are as follows:

Fitting target of lowest sum of squared absolute error





Increasing the depth(d) of the beam alone by 5%











Similarly for the remaining cases the natural frequencies are
calculated and tabulated.

Breadth(b) Depth(d)
Natural
Frequency
from
Conventional
Equations
Natural
Frequency
from
Regression
Method
% Error
0.02 0.003 12.322 12.32234 0.00274681
0.02 0.00315 12.9386 12.93791 -0.00536153
0.02 0.0033 13.5547 13.5536 -0.00813418
0.02 0.00345 14.17 14.16941 -0.0041504
0.02 0.0036 14.78 14.78535 0.0361952
0.02 0.00375 15.403 15.40141 -0.01031797
0.02 0.0039 16.019 16.0176 -0.00877018
0.02 0.00405 16.635 16.6339 -0.00659575
0.02 0.0042 17.25 17.25033 0.00193507
0.02 0.00435 17.867 17.86689 -0.00062623
0.02 0.0045 18.483 18.48357 0.00306084
Free Vibration Analysis of Beams using Finite Element
Method





Combined Eigen values and Eigen vectors of undamped system
are obtained using MATLAB software.
[V, D] = eig (A,B)
From the Eigen value, we found the natural frequency values
using the equation.



















First natural frequencies of cantilever beam from
polynomial regression for Increasing the depth(d)
alone by 5% are as follows:


Breadth(b) Depth(d) FEM Regression % Error
0.02 0.003 17.182 17.16601399 -0.09303931
0.02 0.00315 18 18.02856923 0.15871795
0.02 0.0033 18.9 18.89065361 -0.04945178
0.02 0.00345 19.75 19.75226713 0.01147915
0.02 0.0036 20.619 20.61340979 -0.02711193
0.02 0.00375 21.477 21.47408159 -0.01358856
0.02 0.0039 22.33 22.33428252 0.01917831
0.02 0.00405 23.196 23.19401259 -0.00856791
0.02 0.0042 24.055 24.05327179 -0.00718439
0.02 0.00435 24.91 24.91206014 0.00827033
0.02 0.0045 25.77 25.77037762 0.00146536
Case Study 2
Ansys
The T-structure having dimensions as shown in figure is
divided into 5 elements equally. Natural frequencies of
structure are calculated by considering the situations
which have been taken for case study 1







The given modal is analyzed using ANSYS software and
the natural frequency values are tabulated according to
the situations taken for case study 1
For Increasing the depth of the beam alone by 5%
Breadth(b) Depth(d) Natural frequency in Hz
0.02 0.003 110.902
0.02 0.00315 116.4475
0.02 0.0033 121.99
0.02 0.00345 127.53
0.02 0.0036 133.083
0.02 0.00375 138.627
0.02 0.0039 144.173
0.02 0.00405 149.718
0.02 0.0042 155.263
0.02 0.00435 160.808
0.02 0.0045 166.353
Natural Frequency values using
conventional equations and FEM are
calculated and tabulated for the situations
taken for this project. The reanalysis has
been carried out for those 4 situations and
the % error was calculated.
RESULTS
For Cantilever Beam
Table : Results comparison for Cantilever Beam
Situations
Parameters
increased (or)
decreased by 5%
Conventional Equations FEM
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
1. Increasing
i. Depth
ii. Breadth(b)
and Depth(d)
0.0361952
1.407551
-0.00062623
-0.00028
0.15871795
0.00010797
-0.00856791
-0.0000934
1. Decreasing
i. Depth
ii. Breadth(b)
and Depth(d)
0.05472
-0.65549
-0.05075
-2.04138
0.000219
0.001525004
-0.0000396
-0.0000979
For T-Structure
Table : Results comparison for T-Structure

Situations
Parameters
increased (or)
decreased by 5%
Conventional Equations FEM
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
1. Increasing
i. Depth
ii. Breadth(b)
and Depth(d)
0.004619
0.0046185
-0.000961243
-0.000962533
0.00076409
0.00764102
-0.000349387
-0.000349376
1. Decreasing
iii. Depth
iv. Breadth(b)
and Depth(d)
0.0006440
0.0006410
-0.000293159
-0.000293259
0.90000802
0.9000812
-0.033602936
-0.033650713
CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions are drawn from the work
The Natural Frequencies of Cantilever Beam and T-
Structure in modal analysis and by using Conventional
equations are exactly equal values.

The results obtained from FEM are approximately
nearer to Conventional results. By considering more
number of elements we get nearer values.

The Reanalysis of both case studies has been carried
out using Polynomial Regression Method for the four
situations considered in the case studies.