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To compare

methods and
approaches i n
l anguage
teachi ng
RICHARDS MODEL
Method
Aproach
* Theory of
language
* Theory of
language learning

Design
* Objectives
* Content and organization
* Learning and teaching
activities
* Roles
Procedure
*Classroom
techniques and
practices
RICHARDS MODEL
Theor y of
l anguage

Theor y of
l anguage
l earni ng
APPROACH
There are at least 3 different theoretical views
of language and the nature of language
proficiency that influence current methods in
language teaching:

Structural view
Functional view
Interactional view
THEORY OF LANGUAGE
Krashens Monitor Model theory
Charles Currans Counseling Learning work.
THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING
Obj ecti ves

Syl l abus
(content and
organi zati on)

Learni ng and
teachi ng
acti vi ti es

Learner rol es

Teacher rol es

The rol es of
i nstructi onal
materi al s
DESIGN
In order for an approach to lead to a method,
it is necessary to develop a design for an
instructional system.
DESIGN
Different theories of language and language
learning influence the focus of a method, that
is, they determine what a method sets out to
achieve.

However, the specification of particular
learning objectives, is a product of design, not
of approach.
OBJECTIVES
Product-oriented objectives: state what learners
are expected to do as a result of instruction
Linguistically-oriented objectives: state what
learners are supposed to know about the
language
Process-oriented objectives: describe the
learners experiences in the language
classroom to carry-out the product-oriented
objectives.
OBJECTIVES

The degree to which a method has process-
oriented or product-oriented objectives may be
revealed in how much emphasis is placed on
vocabulary acquisition and grammatical
proficiency and in how grammatical or
pronunciation errors are treated in methods.
OBJECTIVES
All methods involve decisions concerning the
selection of language items (words, sentence
patterns, tenses, constructions, functions,
topics, etc.) that are going to be covered during
a course.
Decisions about the choice of language content
relate to both subject matter (what to talk
about) and linguistic matter (how to talk about
it).


THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
Methods typically differ in what they see as the
relevant language and subject matter around
which language teaching should be organized
and the principles used in sequencing content
within a course.

Grammar-based courses
Functionally-oriented courses
Communicative-oriented courses


THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
In Grammar-based courses matters of sequence
and gradation are generally determined
according to the difficulty of items or their
frequency.
In Communicative or Functionally oriented
courses (ESP programs) sequencing may be
according to the learners communicative
needs.


THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
Brown lists 7 basic syllabus types:
Structural
Situational
Topical
Functional
Notional
Skills-based
Task-based


THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
Structural syllabus: Grammatical and
phonological structures are the organizing
principles sequenced from easy to difficult
or frequent to less frequent

Situational syllabus: Situations (such as at the
school, at a restaurant, at the supermarket
etc.) are the organizing principle sequenced by
how likely students will encounter them.

THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
Topical syllabus: Topics or themes (such as our
body, our house, our family, etc.) form the
organizing principle- sequenced by the
likelihood that the students will encounter them

Functional syllabus: Functions (such as
introduction, ask and give information, etc.) are
the organizing principle sequenced by some
sense of chronology or usefulness of each
function
THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
Notional syllabus: Conceptual categories called
notions (such as quantity, duration, location,
etc.) are the basis of organization sequenced
by some sense of chronology or usefulness of
each notion

Skills syllabus: Skills (such as listening for
main ideas, scanning a reading passage for
specific information, etc.) serve as the basis for
organization sequenced by some sense of
chronology or usefulness for each skill.
THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
Task or activity based syllabus: Task or activity-
based categories (such as drawing maps,
following directions or instructions, etc.) serve
as the basis for organization sequenced by
some sense of chronology or usefulness of
notions
THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
The syllabus underlying the Situational and
Audiolingual methods consists of a list of
grammatical items and constructions, often
together with an associated list of vocabulary
items
Notional-functional syllabuses specify the
communicative content of a course in terms of
functions, notions, topics, grammar, and
vocabulary. Such syllabuses are usually
determined in advance of teaching and for this
reason have been referred to as "a priori
syllabuses.

THE SYLLABUS: CONTENT CHOICE
AND ORGANIZATION
The objectives of a method, are attained
through the instructional process, through the
organized and directed interaction of teachers,
learners, and materials in the classroom.

Differences among methods manifest
themselves in the choice of different kinds of
learning and teaching activities in the
classroom.
TYPES OF LEARNING AND
TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Thus, Teaching activities that focus on
grammatical accuracy may be quite different
from those that focus on communicative skills.

So, the activity types that a method advocates -
the third component in the level of design in
method analysis - often serve to distinguish
methods

TYPES OF LEARNING AND
TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Audiolingualism, for example, uses dialogue
and pattern practice extensively.
The Silent Way employs problem-solving
activities that involve the use of special charts
and colored rods.
Communicative language teaching uses tasks
that involve an "information gap" and
"information transfer"; that is, learners work on
the same task, but each learner has different
information needed to complete the task.
TYPES OF LEARNING AND
TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Differences among methods may be reflected
both in the use of different kinds of activities
and in different uses for particular activity
types.
For example, interactive games are often used
in audiolingual courses for motivation and to
provide a change of pace from pattern-practice
drills.
In communicative language teaching the same
games may be used to introduce or provide
practice for particular types of interactive
exchanges.
TYPES OF LEARNING AND
TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Differences in activity types in methods may
also involve different arrangements and
groupings of learners.

A method that stresses oral chorus drilling will
require different groupings of learners in the
classroom from a method that uses problem-
solving information exchange activities
involving pair work.
TYPES OF LEARNING AND
TEACHING ACTIVITIES
The design of an English program/course, will
be considerably influenced by how learners
are regarded.

A method reflects the perspectives concerning
the learners contribution to the learning
process
LEARNERS ROLES
This is seen in:
The types of activities learners carry-out
The degree of control learners have over the
content of learning
The patterns of learner groupings
The degree to which learners influence the
learning of others
An the view of the learner as a performer,
initiator, problem solver
LEARNERS ROLES
In the initial stages of learning:
The learner is required simply to listen and
repeat what the teacher says and to respond to
questions and commands.
The learner has no control over the content of
learning
The learner is often regarded as likely to
succumb to undesirable behaviors unless
skillfully manipulated by the teacher.
LEARNERS ROLES
Later:
More active participation is encouraged.

This includes learners initiating responses and
asking each other questions, although teacher-
controlled introduction and practice of new
language is stressed throughout.
LEARNERS ROLES
Current view of learners (Johnson and Paulston):
Learners plan their own learning program and
assume responsibility for what they do in class
Learners monitor and evaluate their own
progress
Learners are members of a group and learn by
interacting with others
Learners tutor other learners
Learners learn from the teacher, from other
learners, and from other sources
LEARNERS ROLES
Learner roles in an instructional system are
closely linked to the teachers status and
function.
Some methods are totally dependent on the
teacher as a source of knowledge and direction
Others see the teacher's role as catalyst,
consultant, guide, and model for learning
Still others try to teacher-proof the
instructional system by limiting teacher
initiative and by building instructional content
and direction into texts or lessons plans.
TEACHER ROLES
Teacher and learner roles define the type of
interaction characteristic of classrooms in which
a particular method is being used.
TEACHER ROLES
Teacher roles in methods are related to the
following Issues:
a) The types of functions teachers are expected
to fulfill, whether that of practice director,
counselor, or model.
b) The degree of control the teacher has over how
learning takes place;
c) The degree to which the teacher is responsible
for determining the content of what IS taught
d) The interactional patterns that develop
between teachers and learners.
TEACHER ROLES
The Syllabus defines linguistic content in terms
of language elements (structures, topics,
functions, etc.) or learning tasks. It also defines
the goals for language learning in terms or the 4
skills.
THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
The instructional materials in their turn further
specify subject matter content, even where no
syllabus exists, and define or suggest the
intensity of coverage for syllabus items,
allocating the amount of time, attention, and
detail particular syllabus items or tasks require.

Instructional materials also define or imply the
day-to-day learning objectives that collectively
constitute the goals of the syllabus.
THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
The role of instructional materials within a
method or instructional will reflect decisions
concerning
The primary goal of materials (e.g., to present
content, to practice content, to facilitate
communication between learners, or to enable
learners to practice content without the
teacher's help),
The form of materials (e.g., textbook,
audiovisuals, computer software ),
THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
The relation of materials to other sources of
input (i.e. whether they serve as the major
source of input or only as a minor component of
it),
The abilities of teachers (e.g., their competence
in the language or degree of training and
experience.)
THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
PROCEDURE
This encompasses the actual moment-to-
moment techniques, practices, and behaviors
that operate in teaching a language according to
a particular method.

It is the level at which we describe how a
method realizes its approach and design in
classroom behavior.
PROCEDURE
At the level of design we saw that a method will
advocate the use of certain types of teaching
activities as a consequence of its theoretical
assumptions about language and learning.

At the level of procedure we are concerned with
how these tasks and activities are integrated
into lessons and used as the basis for teaching
and learning.
PROCEDURE
There are three dimensions to a method at the
level of procedure:
a)The use of teaching activities (drills, dialogues,
information-gap activities, etc.) to present new
language and to clarify and demonstrate
formal, communicative, or other aspects of the
target language.
b)The ways in which particular teaching activities
are used for practicing language
c) The procedures and techniques used in giving
feedback to learners concerning the form or
content of their utterances or sentences.
PROCEDURE
Essentially, then, procedure focuses on the way
a method handles the presentation, practice,
and feedback phases of teaching.
PROCEDURE
Method
Aproach
* Theory of
language
* Theory of
language learning

Design
* Objectives
* Content and organization
* Learning and teaching
activities
* Roles
Procedure
*Classroom
techniques and
practices
RICHARDS MODEL