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Magnetic Components Used in the


Train Pantograph to Reduce the
Arcing Phenomena

Presented by-
Saurabh Mishra
PESC-140943019

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contents
Introduction
Objective
Review of Literatures
Research Methodology
Detailed description
Experimental Model
Experimental Results
Conclusion
References

Introduction
A pantograph always remains in contact with the overhead train
line is used to send electricity to the main transformer of the
electric train, thus providing power.

Due to many external Disturbances the train line may lose
contact with pantograph, causes arcing phenomena to occur.

The arcing produced creates harmonics in the electric over head
line and degrades the Power Quality

Physical properties of magnetic components is used improve the
contact between the pantograph and the overhead train line
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Objectives
To reduce the arcing caused by contact loss of overhead train
line and the pantograph using magnetic components.

To improve the Power Quality in the Over head train line by
reducing the current fluctuations.

To optimize the magnetic force based arc prevention methods
using Artificial Neural Network.

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Review of Literatures
It is dangerous to the equipment in locomotives for the
over-voltage and harmonic caused by the arcing. Over-
voltage amplitude and duration caused by the arcing have
been studied (T. Li et al, 2011)

Study of electrical characteristics on pantograph arcing.
Arcing Voltages ,currents and their harmonics are
analysed. (W. Wang et al, 2011),
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Research Methodology
Basic Physical Property of magnetic material is used that is
opposite attracts and like repels by using a Neodymium
Magnet.

Simulating a experimental Model and analysing the Results.

ANN Used for Optimisation of magnetic forces required at
different time or motor speed.
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Pantograph
Pantograph is always placed at the top of the train Engine.

Pantograph send electricity to the main transformer of the electric
train by making contact with the overhead train line.

A graphite plate is their in pantograph that slides on over head line.

Various Disturbances can cause pantograph rapidly contact and
separate with train line results as arcing produced.
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Lower Arm
Upper Arm
Coupling
Rod
Damper System
Collector Head
Slide Plate
Base Frame
Fig1: General Description of Pantograph
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Power system Structure of the Electrified
Railway
Fig.2. Single-phase booster transformer (BT) power supply circuit diagram for the Taiwan rail system.
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Artificial Neural Network
Artificial neural networks are composed of Neurons or processing
units.

Artificial Neuron is the basic unit of a Neural network.

Three layered Network input layer, hidden layer and output layer.

Input and output have only layer while the hidden layer may have no
layer or multiple layers

A three layered network with feed forward back-propagation
algorithm is shown in the figure 5.
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Fig.3. Feed forward back-propagation network.
Fig 4: Model of the artificial neuron.
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The formula that relates the input and output in neural networks can
generally be expressed using function based on the weighted sum of
the input values.
yj=f(WijXi+bj)
f : Transfer function, which simulates the non Linear processing function.
bj: The partial weighted value of jth neuron simulates the weighted value
of neuron
Wij: The weight value of the connection between the ith and jth neuron.
Xj: The input variable for the jth neuron.
Yj: The output value of jth neuron, which simulates output signal of
neuron.



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Experimental Model
An Experimental model is used which resembles the same conductive
and motion behaviour as between the train line and the Pantograph.

Ferric disk connected with motor is used, Piece of train line is welded
around the ferric disk and touched by electrified graphite rod.

Relative motion between the Ferric Disk and electrified Graphite Rod
gives the same behaviour as between the train line and Pantograph.

Neodymium Magnet is Placed above graphite rod to attract the line that
is Welded to the Ferric Disk.


14 Fig. 5. Conductive and Motion behaviour between the train line and the pantograph
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Material Hard-drawn copper
Manufacturing standards UIC870
Outer diameter 12.24mm0.16mm
Cross-sectional area 107mm 3%
Conductivity 97% IACS
Resistivity 0.0175-mm/m(20 C)
Thermal expansion
Coefficient
17/ C (20 C)
Elongation 3-7%(200mm)
Destruction Rally 3906kgf
Weight 0.95kg/m
TABLE I
TRAIN LINE MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
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Fig. 6.Forces of contact surface between the train line and the pantograph with eight magnetic
blocks.
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Fig. 7. Experiment process for setting the motion between the train line and pantograph.
Set the motor speed
The oscilloscope records
current waveform
Add neodymium magnet
Eight
magnetic
blocks are
joined
Motor speed
1780 rpm
Beginning of the
Experiment
The End of the
Experiment
NO
YES
NO
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Experimental Results

TABLE II: EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS
OF RMS CURRENT (IN MILLIAMPERES)
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Fig. 8. Comparison chart of speed and load current with/without magnets.
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TABLE III
NUMBER OF CURRENT FLUCTUATIONS AT DIFFERENT SPEEDS
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Fig. 9. Schematic for iteratively predicting train offline times using neural network algorithms.
Conclusions
The contact loss frequency between pantograph and the train
overhead line is reduced.

The measured currents with magnets added is significantly
greater than the absence of magnets.

Current fluctuation frequencies are reduced ,decreased collector
head current loss thus increases the stability of the power supply
system.

The number of pantograph contact losses can be reduced by
exploiting the physical properties of magnetic elements.
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References
W. Wang et al., Experimental study of electrical
characteristics on pantograph arcing, in Proc. 1st ICEPE-ST,
2011, pp. 602607.
T. Li et al., Pantograph arcings impact on locomotive
equipment's, in Proc. IEEE 57th Holm Conf. Elect. Contacts,
2011, pp. 15.
T. Ding, G. X. Chen, and J. Bu, Effect of temperature and
arc discharge on friction and wear behaviors of carbon
strip/copper contact wire in pantographcatenary systems,
Wear, vol. 271, no. 9/10, pp. 16291636, Jul. 2011.
G. Bucca, A. Collina, and R. Manigrasso, Analysis of
electrical interferences related to the current collection quality
in pantographcatenary interaction, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., J.
Rail Rapid Transit, vol. 225, no. F5, pp. 483499, 2011.
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