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NEBOSH

WEEK 2 ELEMENT 8
Construction Activities
Hazards & Control
Page: 248
NEBOSH
Effective Management
That there is sufficient time allowed for
planning, preparation and the work itself

Early appointment of key people, including
competent Consultants, Designers, Principal
Contractor and if necessary other Contractors
Page: 249
NEBOSH
Effective Management (cont)
All the parties involved co-operate and co-
ordinate their activities to ensure effective
management of health and safety throughout
the project

Risk assessment and risk management
processes are integral to the project

All parties involved in the project have clearly
defined roles
Page: 249
NEBOSH
Management of significant
construction projects
The Five key parties are:
1) The Client
2) Consultants
3) Designers
4) The Principal Contractor
5) Other Contractors
Page: 249
NEBOSH
Clients Duties
Appoint competent consultants
Appoint competent designers
Appoint competent principal contractor
Ensure those appointed have adequate
resources

Page: 250
NEBOSH
Consultants Duties
Advise client on selection of
designers, contractors etc.
Collect pre-construction information
Ensure co-operation between
different designers
Give advice to clients and contractors
Provide client with relevant
documentation
Page: 250
NEBOSH
Designers Duties
Ensure clients kept informed
Structures designed to avoid risks
to health and safety while being
built and maintained
Ensure to avoid or minimise risks
Provide information about materials
Co-operate with other designers
Provide information to consultant
Page: 250
NEBOSH
Principal Contractor
Provide information to the Client and Consultant
Consider health & safety when preparing tender
Develop safety plan for construction
Co-ordinate activities of all contractors
Ensure all on site comply with health & safety
rules
Take steps to ensure only authorised persons on
site
Provide health and safety information to all
necessary
Page: 250
NEBOSH
Other Contractors
(sub-contractor) Duties
Must co-operate with Principal
Contractor
Provide relevant information to
Principal Contractor
Comply with directions given by
Principal Contractor
Should provide Principal Contractor
with information on accidents
Page: 251
NEBOSH
Other requirements
Pre Construction information

Construction phase of the project

The project file

Site Precautions

Additional precautions for Children
Page: 251
NEBOSH
Site Security
Fencing
Hoardings
Warning Signs
Security Patrols
Visiting Schools
Viewing Panels

Page: 255
Precautions for preventing children to
gain access include :
NEBOSH
Site Security
Precautions to be taken
should access be gained
by unauthorised
trespassers

Covering or Fencing excavations
Removing Ladders
Immobilising plant/machinery
Locking away chemicals/tools
Reducing height of materials
Isolating services
Clearing away rubbish and debris

Page: 255
NEBOSH
Main Construction Hazards
Falls from height
Fragile roofs
Falling objects, slips, trips
Excavations
Demolition
Explosives
Working in or over water
Working in tunnels
Vehicles
Traffic movements
Plant and equipment
Doors and gates
Lighting & Weather
Stability
Fire
Material storage
Page: 255
NEBOSH
Main Hazards of Roof Work
Fragile roof materials
Roof edges
Slippery sloping roof surfaces
Materials falling from roof
Contact with overhead
electricity cables
Hot Bitumen
Liquified Petroleum Gases
Manual handling
Roof Types
pitched roofs
extensive works
short duration work
flat roofs
fragile roofs
Page: 259
NEBOSH
Roof Work
Falling Off
Falling Through
No edge protection
Slippery surfaces
Handling materials
Fragile materials
Skylights covered over
No crawling boards
Page: 259
NEBOSH
Pitched roofs precautions
(Over 10 degrees)
Carry out survey
Safe means of access
Roof edge barriers
Roof ladders/crawling boards
Identifying and covering roof lights
Facilities to raise and lower materials
Protection for persons below
Provision of harnesses
No work in severe weather
Competent workers

Page: 259
NEBOSH
Bitumen Flat Roof Precautions
Safe use of Bitumen boilers
Safe use of burning gases
Training in manual handling
Page: 260
NEBOSH
The Working at Heights
Regulations 2005


Hierarchy of working at height Reg 6:
Avoid work at height if possible
Use work equipment or other measures to prevent
falls when they cannot avoid working at height
Where they cannot eliminate the risk of falls use
work equipment or other measures to minimise
the distance and consequences of a fall should
one occur
Risks from fragile surfaces are properly controlled
NEBOSH
Fragile Roofs - Precautions
Crawl boards
430mm wide
spanning purlins
Boarded valleys
Running line and
safety harness
Barriers or covers to
roof lights
NEBOSH
Fall Arrest Systems
- Lowest level of the
hierarchy
- Aim to minimise
the risk of injury
if there is a fall
Page: 260
NEBOSH
Main hazards when using Ladders

Over-reaching from ladder
Unsecured/unstable ladder
Ladder not extended above step off point
Using a damaged/worn ladder
Metal ladder contact with electrical cables
Falling material being carried up ladder
Vehicle collision with base of ladder
Manual handling carrying and erecting
Page: 261
NEBOSH
TWI Gulf WLL 2008
Unsuitable use of Ladders
Stand ladder on unsteady base Stand ladder on
unsteady base
Overload
Makeshift and
too short
Overreaching
Page: 261
NEBOSH
Minimising Hazards of
ladder use (1)
Ladder rested on a firm level base
Use of stabilization devices or otherwise
footed
Secure ladder by: Correct angle 75% or 1:4
ratio.
Tied off at top
Extend suitable distance above step off point
(1.00 metres min)
The top of the ladder against a solid surface
Page: 261
NEBOSH
Minimising Hazards of
ladder use (2)
Use wooden ladders near overhead
cables/erect goal posts and signs
Provide equipment to raise materials
Provide holsters to carry tools
Only one person at a time on a ladder
Rungs should be clear of grease, oil or other
slippery substance.

Page: 261
NEBOSH
Minimising Hazards of
ladder use (3)
Barrier off base and display warning
signs
Use of ladder by only trained users
Assistance when moving/erecting ladder
Inspection and maintenance of ladders
Ladder register
Page: 261
NEBOSH
Step Ladder precautions
Inspected for defects before use
Correctly positioned on even ground
Suitable for task
Footed if necessary
Avoid over-reaching
Not overloaded
Positioned on even ground
No work carried off top step
Worker maintains three point contact
Properly erected and legs fully extended
Page: 262
NEBOSH
Scaffolding
Page: 263
NEBOSH
STANDARD
TRANSOM
LEDGER DECKING
BASEPLATE
SOLEPLATE
BRACING
TOEBOARD
HAND RAIL/ HAND GUARD
COUPLERS


Handrail/guard rail
Couplers
Bracing
Boards
Sole plate
Base plate
Toe board
Transome
Standard
Ledger
Page: 263
NEBOSH
Independent Tied Scaffold
Page: 264
NEBOSH
Through Tied Scaffold
END OF
SCAFFOLD
Sole Plates
Base Plates
Standard
Transom
Ledger
Ledger Brace
Facade Brace
Scaffolding Planks
(Deck area min of 600 mm wide)
Toe Board (Min 150 mm high)
Intermediate guard rail (Max gap of 470 mm)
Brick Guard
Guard Rail (Approx 1.0 m high)
Through Tie
Reveal Tie
Large
Eye Bolt
Eye Bolt
and Strap
Couplers at joints
Page: 266
NEBOSH
Through Tie
Page: 266
NEBOSH
Reveal Tie
Page: 266
NEBOSH
Box and Eyebolt Tie
Box Tie
Eye Bolts
Page: 266
NEBOSH
Maximum span of scaffold
boards
Nominal
thickness
of boards
Maximum
span between
transoms
Minimum
overhang

Maximum
overhang
38mm

1.5m 50mm 150mm
50mm 2.6m 50mm 200mm
63mm 3.25m 50mm 250mm
Page: 138
NEBOSH
TWI Gulf WLL 2008
Scaffold Types and Spacings
Duty Use of Platform Max. bay
very light
duty
Inspection, Painting,
stone cleaning, and
access
2.7 m (3 bds)
Light duty Plastering, painting,
stone cleaning, glazing,
pointing
2.4m (4 bds)
General
purpose
General Building e.g.
brickwork, window fixing.
2.1m (5bds)
Heavy duty Blockwork, Brickwork,
heavy cladding
2.0m (6 bds)
Masonry or
special duty
Masonry, Concrete Block,
very heavy cladding
1.8m (7 bds)
Page: 265
NEBOSH
Scaffold Inspection
After Erection
Every 7 days
Adverse weather
After struck by vehicle
After modification
Page: 270
NEBOSH
Reasons for Scaffold Collapse
Wrong materials
Unstable foundations
Improperly designed
Improper erection
Overloading
Modified incorrectly
Undermined by excavations
Hit by machinery
Excessive winds/Rain
Page: 271
NEBOSH
Inspection of scaffolds
Base Firm ground and sole plates
Line of standards and ledgers
Spacing of transoms to support boards
Boards good condition
Guardrails and toe boards
Bracing
Means of access
Ties number and position
Correct couplers
Joints staggered
Page: 271
NEBOSH
Putlog Scaffold
Ledger
Sole Plate
Base Plate
Standard
Putlog
Putlog
End Brace
Facade Brace
Scaffolding Planks
(Deck area min of 600 mm wide)
Guard Rail (Approx 1.0 m high)
Intermediate guard rail (Max gap of 470 mm)
Toe Board (Min 150 mm high)
Brick Guard
Through Tie
Couplers at joints
Page: 271
NEBOSH
Putlog Scaffold
Page: 271
NEBOSH
Putlog Scaffold Through
Tie
Page: 272
NEBOSH
Scaffold Towers
Main Hazards
Overturning
Collapse
Fall from height
Falling objects
Overhead
obstructions
NEBOSH
Scaffold Towers - Ratios
Height/ Width Ratio
Static internal 4:1
Static external 3.5:1
Mobile internal 3.5:1
Mobile external 3:1
Page: 273
NEBOSH
Scaffold Towers - Stability
Affected by:
sheeted in strong winds
overloaded with equipment
or materials
used to hoist heavy materials
or support rubbish chutes
used for operations such as
grit blasting or water-jetting
climbed from the outside
used to support ladders
Page: 138
NEBOSH
Precautions using of scaffold Towers
Mobile Towers only be used on firm &level ground
Tower only be moved by pulling or pushing at base
Working platform be clear of men and materials when
scaffold is being moved
Wheels be turned outwards and locked when tower
being used
Correct height to width ratio
Diagonal bracing
Platforms must be fully boarded with guardrails and
toe boards
Not overloaded
Access be on the inside of the narrowest side
Inspected every 7 days
Page: 274
NEBOSH
MEWPs
Hazards
Equipment failure
Unsuitable ground conditions
Defective or unused
outriggers
Overloaded carrier
Carrier struck by a slung load
MEWP struck by another
vehicle
NEBOSH
Mobile Elevating Work Platforms
(MEWPs) Precautions
Trained & Competent
Guardrails and toeboards
Firm/level ground
Not overloaded
Clear of overhead obstructions
Area cordoned off
Outriggers extended
Procedures If machine fails
Well lit

Page: 275
NEBOSH
Self Propelled AWP
Will pass through
standard doorways
1.36m long
0.76m wide
Turns 360 degrees in
1.5 m radius
Max Height 5.8m
SWL 227 kg
Aerial Work Platform
NEBOSH
Self Propelled AWP
Do Not
Work close to
overhead
cables
Allow arm to
protrude into
traffic route
Move with
platform raised
Check
limitations
NEBOSH
Suspended Access Equipment
Main precautions should be :

Regular inspection
Safe working load
Competent staff
Safety equipment working
Platform edge protection
Guard rails and toe boards fitted
Adverse weather rules
Protected electricity supplies
Communication
Emergency procedures
Page: 275
NEBOSH
Excavation Hazards
Collapse Of The Sides
Over Running Of Vehicles
Persons Falling Into The Excavation
Materials Falling Into Excavations
Underground Services
Access And Egress
Hazardous Atmospheres
Undermining Adjacent Structures
Flooding
Buried Services
NEBOSH
Excavation Inspection
1) At the start of every shift before
work starts
2) After any event likely to affect the
strength
3) Any accidental fall of rock earth or
other materials
Excavations should be inspected:
Page: 277
NEBOSH
Excavations Assessment
Soil types and conditions
Existing structures and roads
Underground services
Flooding
Protection of Public
Depth-support?
Surcharge loads
Access and egress
Lighting
Experienced Operatives
PPE
Page: 277
NEBOSH
Precautions To Prevent
Trench Collapse
Slope or bench the sides of the excavation,
Support the sides of the excavation, or
Place a shield between the side of the excavation
and the work area
NEBOSH
Methods of Demolition
By Hand
By machine
Pusher arm
Wire rope pulling
Demolition ball
Impact hammer
Power grabs
By Chemical agent
Demolition by explosives
Gas expansion bursters
Hydraulic bursters
Expanding demolition agents
Hot cutting
High pressure water jetting
NEBOSH
Main Hazards of Demolition
Falling debris, masonry
Premature collapse of building
Falls from height or on the same level
Services (electricity, gas and water)
Explosion and fire
Chemical contamination - Lead dust,
silica dust, asbestos, gases vapours and
fumes
Page: 279
NEBOSH
Main Hazards of Demolition
Asbestos
Biological - Weils disease, hepatitis
(syringes) sewage contamination
Manual handling e.g. Strains, fractures
The use of explosives
Collisions with heavy plant, plant
toppling over
Noise e.g. Heavy plant, pneumatic drills,
power tools
Page: 279
NEBOSH
Demolition
Protection of Public
Restricted areas
Safe distances
Airborne contamination
Protection of Workforce
Sequence of demolition
Permit systems
Existing/temporary services
Flammables
Segregation
PPE
Page: 278
NEBOSH
Safety precautions for
Demolition
Identification and isolation of services
Barriers, Fences, Restricted access
Means of preventing falls
Use of Elephant Trunks to remove debris
Means of suppressing dust
Identification/Removal of hazardous
substances
Competent Staff Clear responsibilities
Preventing premature collapse
Sequence of demolition followed
Properly maintained equipment
Page: 280
NEBOSH
Construction Health Hazards
Noise
Vibration
Solvent and cleaners
Fumes and radiation
Biological hazards
Dusts
Saw dust
Lead dust
Silica dust
Asbestos fibres
Cement
Irritant dermatitis
Allergic dermatitis
Skin burns and
ulcers
Page: 280
NEBOSH
Storage of materials
Sand and aggregate
Bricks, Blocks, Roof tiles
Roof trusses
Various pipes
Main hazards Precautions
Falling from lorries Minimum quantities
Tripping hazards Effective storing
Obstructing
traffic/walkways
Low as possible
Materials falling from piles Clearly marked areas
Causing dust hazards Ensure good housekeeping
Page: 281
NEBOSH
Storage of Flammable Materials
Keep quantities to a minimum
Secure storage areas
Storage area properly ventilated
Containers and cylinders returned to
storage at end of day
Prohibit smoking and other ignition
sources from storage area
Page: 282
NEBOSH
Storage of Flammable Materials
Suitable and properly labelled
containers for decanted materials
Protection of storage area from
vehicle impact
Inspection of gas cylinders to ensure
valves fully closed
Correct and right number of fire
extinguishers
Page: 282
NEBOSH
Safe Practices for the use, collection
and removal of skips from site
Suitable skip from reputable supplier/ contractor
Hazardous waste stored separately
Skip in good condition
Skip not overloaded
Located on firm level ground
Adequate room for delivery/removal
Chutes for filling
Netting or sheeting for removal
PPE for staff
Page: 282
NEBOSH
Safe use of portable tools on site
Ensuring suitable equipment
Reduced voltage 110V supply system
Extra low voltage for wet locations
Use of Residual Current Devices
(RCDs)
Double insulated tools
Battery operated tools
Suitable connections
Pre-use inspections
Inspection, testing and maintenance
Competence of workers
Page: 283
NEBOSH
Precautions for Electricity
on Construction Sites
Underground
CAT Scanner
Crossing points
Goal Posts
Underground Cable Detector CAT up to 3meters
Page: 283
NEBOSH
Overhead power cables
The MINIMUM recommended safe working distance is 6
METRES from the nearest part of the crane (usually the jib)
even when the crane is working in the opposite direction
If the minimum distance cannot be maintained the electricity
supply should be disconnected

Overhead high voltage
electrical cable




6 metres
NEBOSH
Overhead Electrical Services
Isolation of power if possible
Safe path marked (Use of barriers,
fencing)
Height restrictions marked by goalposts
Warning notices
Ban equipment capable of reaching
overhead lines
Limiters fitted to cranes
Supervision
Page: 283
NEBOSH
Underground Services
Service Hazards
Electricity
cables
Explosive effects of arcing current & consequential
fires
electric shock
Gas pipes Noxious or flammable atmospheres
Water
pipes
High pressure jets
Flooding - drowning or undermining the excavation
Sewerage Risk of contamination
Other
pipelines
Flammable liquids and gases
Toxic liquids and gases
Inert gases that may displace oxygen and asphyxiate
Liquids under pressure
Telecoms Business interruption
Gases from other sources may accumulate in cable
ducts
NEBOSH
Underground Services Controls
Planning the work
Locating the services
Identifying the services
Safe Digging practices
PLID
All services should be assumed live
unless proven otherwise
Page: 283
NEBOSH
Safe Digging Practice
Trial holes using suitable hand tools
Special care when digging above or close to
the line of a service
No hand-held power tools or mechanical
excavators close to underground services
Excavations alongside the service rather than
directly above it
Final exposure by horizontal digging using
hand tools
Spades and shovels with curved edges /
gentle foot pressure
Proprietary air digging tools

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