Você está na página 1de 75

NEBOSH

Page: 198

NEBOSH Page: 198 WEEK 2 – ELEMENT 7 Physical and Psychological (Hazards & Control)

WEEK 2 ELEMENT 7

Physical and Psychological

(Hazards & Control)

NEBOSH

dB(A)

Decibel, Lepd

Page: 199

dB(Decibel) = Unit of measure of loudness (on logarithmic scale)

A= A weighted-frequency most closely resembling human hearing (filter)

Daily Personal Noise Exposure (Lepd)

Total noise exposure individual is subjected to during a working day averaged over 8 hour period

NEBOSH

Page: 200

Anatomy of the Ear
Anatomy of the Ear
NEBOSH Page: 200 Anatomy of the Ear Outer ear Middle ear Inner ear
Outer ear
Outer ear
Middle ear
Middle ear
Inner ear
Inner ear

NEBOSH

Page: 204

Health effects of Noise
Health effects of Noise

Chronic:

  • a) Tinnitus (ringing in the ear, over-stimulation of the hair cells)

  • b) Permanent threshold shift (permanent damage)

  • c) Loss of frequency (damage to hair cells)

Acute:

  • a) Trauma from loud noise ( explosion, Burst eardrum)

  • b) Temporary threshold shift (hearing affected at specific frequency)

  • c) Short term tinnitus (over-stimulation of the auditory nerves)

  • d) Secondary effects (stress, loss of concentration)

NEBOSH

Page: 204

How does noise get to us? (2)

There are three main ways noise can be transmitted:

1)

Direct

Through the air from noise source to receiver

2) Reflected Via walls, ceilings, and other structures

3)

Ground and structure

Structure borne through wall or floor

NEBOSH

Page: 204

Noise transmission Paths Reflected Direct Noise Source Ground and structure
Noise transmission Paths
Reflected
Direct
Noise
Source
Ground and structure

NEBOSH

Page: 204

Noise Control Techniques

Source Receiver
Source
Receiver

Path

NEBOSH

Page: 204

Noise Control Techniques
Noise Control Techniques

Source: Design, maintenance/lubrication, reduce speed/energy

Path: location, enclosure, silencers, absorption, damping, isolation, lagging, screens

Receiver: ear protection, job rotation

NEBOSH

Page: 204

Source reduction on Plant

  • Tighten loose equipment

  • Regular lubrication

  • Eliminate unnecessary leaks

  • Properly adjust machinery

NEBOSH Page: 204 Source reduction on Plant  Tighten loose equipment  Regular lubrication  Eliminate
  • Padded containers for catching components

  • Switch equipment off especially fans

  • Use rubber or plastic bushes

  • Specify noise emissions levels in orders

  • Check condition and performance of installed noise control equipment

NEBOSH

Page: 205

Path of Noise prevention Techniques

Location

Move source away from noise sensitive area

Enclosure

Surrounding the noise source with sound insulating

material (care to be taken not to overheat machine)

Silencers

Reducing noise from exhaust pipes etc. using absorbent

materials or baffles

Absorption

Surrounding/obstructing noise source with absorbent

materials (e.g. foam)

NEBOSH

Page: 205

Path of noise control techniques

Damping

Reduction in structure borne noise by the use of

rubber/cork, springs etc.

Isolation

Protection of persons from sound source by distance or

sound proofed rooms

Lagging

Insulation of pipes to reduce sound transmission

Screens

Acoustic screens placed on the path

NEBOSH

Page: 206

Practical measures to reduce exposure to excessive noise
Practical measures to reduce
exposure to excessive noise
NEBOSH Page: 206 Practical measures to reduce exposure to excessive noise Lubrication and maintenance Change the

Lubrication and maintenance

Change the process/design

Reduce energy

Isolation

Silencing

Enclosure

Insulation

Absorption

Damping

Reduce time of exposure

NEBOSH Page: 206 Practical measures to reduce exposure to excessive noise Lubrication and maintenance Change the

PPE

NEBOSH

Page: 206

Types of Hearing Protection

Ear Plugs Comfort Hygiene Ear Defenders Comfort
Ear Plugs
Comfort
Hygiene
Ear Defenders
Comfort

Reusable

NEBOSH Page: 206 Types of Hearing Protection Ear Plugs Comfort Hygiene Ear Defenders Comfort Reusable
NEBOSH Page: 206 Types of Hearing Protection Ear Plugs Comfort Hygiene Ear Defenders Comfort Reusable
NEBOSH Page: 206 Types of Hearing Protection Ear Plugs Comfort Hygiene Ear Defenders Comfort Reusable
NEBOSH Page: 206 Types of Hearing Protection Ear Plugs Comfort Hygiene Ear Defenders Comfort Reusable

NEBOSH

Page: 208

Assumed Protection
Assumed Protection
Noise attenuation devices typically increase the pressure drop of the air distribution system, increasing its energy
Noise attenuation devices typically increase the pressure drop of
the air distribution system, increasing its energy consumption
Attenuation in dB
Frequency (Hz)
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
3150
4000
6300
8000
Mean Attenuation (dB)
19.8
19.9
20.0
22.2
24.1
30.7
38.8
41.4
41.5
40.8
Standard Deviation (dB)
7.5
7.8
6.4
4.9
3.5
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.5
5.9
Assumed Protection (dB)
12.3
12.1
13.6
17.3
20.6
26.4
34.5
36.7
37.0
34.9
Taking the igures for assumed protection, it becomes immediately obvious that noise in the lower frequency range is more
difficult to protect against.

NEBOSH

Page: 209

Reasons for lack of wearing of hearing protection

NEBOSH Page: 209 Reasons for lack of wearing of hearing protection Poor fit Resistance to use
NEBOSH Page: 209 Reasons for lack of wearing of hearing protection Poor fit Resistance to use

Poor fit Resistance to use Uncomfortable

Incompatibility

Interference

Hygiene

Supervision

Deterioration

Abuse

NEBOSH Page: 209 Reasons for lack of wearing of hearing protection Poor fit Resistance to use

NEBOSH

Page: 209

Types of Ionising Radiation

Alpha

Beta

Gamma

X-Ray

Neutron

NEBOSH Page: 209 Types of Ionising Radiation Alpha Beta Gamma X-Ray Neutron

NEBOSH

The Penetrating Power of Different Types of Radiation

NEBOSH The Penetrating Power of Different Types of Radiation Skin or paper stops Alpha Thin aluminium

Skin or paper stops Alpha

Thin aluminium stops Beta

Thick Lead stops Gamma

NEBOSH

Page: 210

Why Is Radioactivity So Useful

Easy to detect

Easy to locate radiating radioisotopes

Radiation can be very penetrating

Can be used to look inside solid objects

Non Destructive testing

Radiation can destroy living cells

Useful for sterilizing Kills micro-organisms Destroying cancer cells

NEBOSH

Paper Machine

NEBOSH Paper Machine
NEBOSH Paper Machine

NEBOSH

Page: 209

NEBOSH Page: 209

NEBOSH

Page: 209

Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

NEBOSH Page: 209 Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Using X or Gamma Radiation Sources
NEBOSH Page: 209 Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Using X or Gamma Radiation Sources

Using X or Gamma Radiation Sources

NEBOSH

X-Rays

Page: 209

NEBOSH X-Rays Page: 209
NEBOSH X-Rays Page: 209

NEBOSH

Page: 210

Harmful Effects of Ionising Radiation

Acute Effects Somatic - Damage to exposed person

mild nausea to severe illness, diarrhoea, headaches, death local exposure can lead to reddening of the

skin/hair loss

Genetic - Damage to reproductive cells Chronic Effects

Somatic Chronic effects as above plus various types of cancer (e.g. lung cancer among uranium miners)

Genetic - Damage to offspring of exposed (Reduced

reproductive success )

NEBOSH

Page: 211

Protection Against Ionising

NEBOSH Page: 211 Protection Against Ionising Time Dose rate is directly proportional to exposure time Distance

Time Dose rate is directly proportional to exposure time

Distance All points

equidistant from the source have same effect

Shielding placing a physical

barrier between the source and the individual

NEBOSH Page: 211 Protection Against Ionising Time Dose rate is directly proportional to exposure time Distance

NEBOSH

Page: 211

Other types of protection against

ionising radiation

  • Personal Protective Equipment

  • Environmental and personal monitoring

  • Training and supervision

  • Good hygiene practices

  • Correct disposal of radiation materials

NEBOSH

Page: 212

Employer may have to appoint

Radiation Protection Advisor: To advise provide expert advice on the protection of persons from radiation (often consultants)

Radiation Protection Supervisor: To ensure that work with radiation is carried out properly

Page: 212

Non-Ionising Radiation

Ultra-violet

Infra-red

Lasers

Microwave

<a href=NEBOS H Page: 212 Non-Ionising Radiation Ultra-violet Infra-red Lasers Microwave " id="pdf-obj-26-17" src="pdf-obj-26-17.jpg">
<a href=NEBOS H Page: 212 Non-Ionising Radiation Ultra-violet Infra-red Lasers Microwave " id="pdf-obj-26-19" src="pdf-obj-26-19.jpg">
<a href=NEBOS H Page: 212 Non-Ionising Radiation Ultra-violet Infra-red Lasers Microwave " id="pdf-obj-26-21" src="pdf-obj-26-21.jpg">

NEBOSH

Page: 212

Ultra-Violet / Infra-Red

NEBOSH Page: 212 Ultra-Violet / Infra-Red Ultra-Violet Welding, sun rays Two main hazards effects on skin

Ultra-Violet

Welding, sun rays

Two main hazards effects on skin and eyes

Infra-red

Hot metal e.g. foundries

Heat and for eyes risk of cataracts

NEBOSH

Lasers In Use

Page: 212

NEBOSH Lasers In Use Page: 212 Cutting Surgery Eyes are more vulnerable to damage from mild
NEBOSH Lasers In Use Page: 212 Cutting Surgery Eyes are more vulnerable to damage from mild

Cutting

Surgery

Eyes are more vulnerable to damage from mild retina

burns to permanent blindness

NEBOSH

Microwave

Page: 213

NEBOSH Microwave Page: 213 Risk of burns to skin and eyes

Risk of burns to skin and eyes

NEBOSH Microwave Page: 213 Risk of burns to skin and eyes

NEBOSH

Page: 213

Protection against non-Ionising radiation

  • Shielding

  • Distance between source and person

  • Reducing duration of exposure

  • Personal protective equipment

  • Protective creams

NEBOSH

Page: 214

Workplace Environment and Welfare Requirements
Workplace Environment and
Welfare Requirements

Working Environment

Ventilation, Temperature, Space, Lighting, Workstations, Seating

Safety

Floors, Traffic Routes, Falls, Falling Objects, Windows, Doors

Maintenance

Equipment, Cleanliness, Window cleaning

Welfare Facilities

Toilets, Wash stations, Drinking Facilities Clothing, Meal Facilities and smoking

NEBOSH

Page: 214

Working Environment
Working Environment

Lighting

NEBOSH Page: 214 Working Environment Lighting Space Noise Ventilation Vibration

Space

Thermal

NEBOSH Page: 214 Working Environment Lighting Space Noise Ventilation Vibration

Noise

Ventilation

NEBOSH Page: 214 Working Environment Lighting Space Noise Ventilation Vibration

Vibration

NEBOSH

Page: 215

Health and Safety effects of inadequate lighting

  • Eye strain

  • Headaches

  • Poor posture

  • Tripping over unseen objects

  • Increased likelihood of error

  • Increased time to evacuate

NEBOSH

Page: 215

Factors to consider in the provision of adequate lighting

The tasks being undertaken

The layout and size of work area

The equipment being used

Availability of natural lighting

Suitability of artificial lighting

The shift patterns

Glare from computer screens

Areas in shadow

Maintenance/replacement of faulty lighting

Requirement for emergency lighting

NEBOSH

Page: 215

Working in Hot Environment

Health Effects

Skin Burns

Dehydration Heat Exhaustion

Heat Cramps

Heat Cataracts Heat Strokes Heat Stress Radiant heat burns

36

© TWI Gulf WLL 2008

NEBOSH

Page: 216

Working in Hot Environment

NEBOSH Page: 216 Working in Hot Environment Protective Measures Medical pre-selection Acclimatisation Cold Drinks Minimise Exposure
NEBOSH Page: 216 Working in Hot Environment Protective Measures Medical pre-selection Acclimatisation Cold Drinks Minimise Exposure
NEBOSH Page: 216 Working in Hot Environment Protective Measures Medical pre-selection Acclimatisation Cold Drinks Minimise Exposure

Protective Measures

Medical pre-selection

Acclimatisation Cold Drinks Minimise Exposure

Shielding and refuges

Regular work breaks Ventilation

Control of humidity

Suitable clothing Health Surveillance Reducing hot/cold at source

Mechanical aids

NEBOSH

Page: 216

Working in a Cold Environment

Health Effects

Onset of fatigue

Shivering

Loss of Dexterity Cold burns

Frostbite

Hypothermia

NEBOSH Page: 216 Working in a Cold Environment Health Effects Onset of fatigue Shivering Loss of

Precautions

Thermal clothing

Reduced Exposure

Monitoring Fail safe mechanisms

Alarms for cold stores

NEBOSH

Page: 216

Room dimensions and space

3 m

11 m 3 for each person of clear space 1.9 m
11 m 3 for each
person of clear
space
1.9 m
NEBOSH Page: 216 Room dimensions and space 3 m 11 m 3 for each person of

1.9 m

NEBOSH

Page: 217

Workstations and Seating

The health effects of working in a seated position:

  • Vertebral and muscular damage

  • High blood pressure

  • Circulation problems e.g. thrombosis

Suitable seat for sedentary work:

  • Good lumbar support

  • Ability to adjust the seat back and seat height

  • Provision of foot rests

  • Stability of the seat base

  • Swivel ability

  • Provision of arm rests

  • Suitable seat material for the environment

NEBOSH

Page: 217

Welfare Requirements

  • Sanitary Conveniences

  • Washing Facilities

  • Drinking Water

  • Accommodation for clothing

  • Facilities for changing clothing

  • Facilities for eating meals

NEBOSH

Page: 217

Sanitary Conveniences

Number of People At Work

Number of Water Closets

Number of Wash Stations

1 to 5

1

1

6 to 25

2

2

  • 26 to 50

3

3

  • 51 to 75

4

4

76 to 100

5

5

NEBOSH

Page: 220

Working Environmental Factors that Can Create Stress

  • Inadequate Lighting

  • Cramped/dirty/untidy conditions

  • Poor Layout (Privacy/Security)

  • Glare, Temperature/Humidity

  • Inadequate ventilation/stale air

  • Noise, Vibration

  • Inadequate welfare facilities

  • Inclement weather conditions

NEBOSH

Page: 220

ERGONOMICS
ERGONOMICS

Definition:

Study of relationship between a worker and the working environment

or

The design of a task around the requirements

of individual human capability

NEBOSH

Ergonomics

Page: 220

People vary enormously in height, weight, strength etc The equipment designed to average man This leads to physical injuries

The Cranfield Man 1.35m AVERAGE DIMENSION CRANFIELD MAN OPERATOR 1.75m HEIGHT 1.35 m 0.48m SHOULDER WIDTH
The Cranfield Man
1.35m
AVERAGE
DIMENSION
CRANFIELD MAN
OPERATOR
1.75m
HEIGHT
1.35 m
0.48m
SHOULDER WIDTH
0.61m
1.83m
ARM SPAN
2.44m
1.07m
ELBOW HEIGHT
0.76m

NEBOSH

Page: 220

Ergonomic Assessment
Ergonomic Assessment

Organisation:

Supervision, procedures, breaks shift patterns

Equipment or process:

Human limitations, Analyse task etc.

The Individual:

Physical capability, knowledge, attitude

Environment:

Temperature, noise, space, lighting etc.

NEBOSH

Page: 221

Causes of WRULDs

WRULDs are caused by:

  • Repetitive finger, hand, or arm movements, e.g. assembly line work, key board operators

  • Twisting movements, e.g. meat and poultry

preparation

  • Squeezing, e.g. using pliers, scissors

  • Pushing, pulling, lifting or reaching movements,

e.g. assembling packing boxes.

  • Work on a production line.

  • Bricklaying

NEBOSH

Page: 221

Symptoms of Work related Upper Limb Disorders

1) Numbness or tingling in fingers etc.

2) Pain

3) Restriction in joint movement

4) Soft tissue swelling

In addition to symptoms

limitation of movement

..Redness,

swelling and

NEBOSH

Page: 221

WRULDs Injuries

Injury

Description

Symptoms

Causes

Tenosyno

Inflammation of the

Aching,

Repetative

vitis

tendons and or tendon sheaths

tenderness, swelling, extreme pain, difficulty using hand

movements often non strenuous

Tendonitis

Inflammation of the

Pain swelling,

Repetative

area where the muscle and tendon join

tenderness and redness of hand, wrist

movements

Carpal

Pressure on the

Tingling, pain and

Repetitive work

Tunnel

nerves which pass

numbness in the

with bent wrist.

Syndrome

up the wrist

thumb and fingers

Use of vibrating tools

Tension

Inflammation of the

Localised pain in

Having to

neck or

neck and shoulder

the neck or

maintain a rigid

shoulders

muscles

shoulders

position

NEBOSH

Page: 221

WRULDS - Prevention

  • Identify at risk jobs (frequent hand and arm movement)

  • Reduce the force frequency and duration

  • Design of the task

  • Design of the equipment

  • Design of the work station

  • Automate the process

  • Job rotation

  • Regular breaks

  • Training Employees in correct use of tools

  • Medical surveillance

  • Assessment of individuals for the task

NEBOSH

Page: 222

Health Effects of DSE

1) Musculoskeletal disorders (hand, arm, shoulder & neck)

2)

3)

Eye and eyesight problems (temporary visual fatigue)

Fatigue and stress (high speed, less breaks, lack of social interaction)

Other minor or alleged health effects

  • 1. Epilepsy ( a common chronic neurological disorder)

  • 2. Facial dermatitis (itching, reddening)

  • 3. Radiation (electromagnetic)

  • 4. Effects on pregnant women - (stress)

NEBOSH

Page: 223

DSE Users who are they?

  • Uses DSE for continuous or near continuous spells of an hour or more at a time

  • Uses DSE more or less daily

  • Has to transfer information quickly to or from DSE

  • Needs high levels of attention and concentration

  • Highly dependant on DSE

  • No choice in the use or non-use of DSE

  • Requires special training or skills

NEBOSH

Page: 223

D.S.E. Assessment
D.S.E. Assessment

Organisation:

Job rotation, Breaks

Individual:

Physical Characteristics, Training

Environmental:

Noise, Lighting, Glare, Temperature, Space etc.

Equipment:

Height/position of keyboard and screen, seating

posture, design of chair, screen definition and colour, adjustability of equipment

NEBOSH

1)

Page: 223

D.S.E. Workstation Layout
D.S.E. Workstation Layout

Good lighting

2)

3)

4)

No glare, distracting reflection

Noise to a minimum

Ample legroom to allow postural movement

5) Minimise glare (windows)

6) Suitable software

NEBOSH 1) Page: 223 D.S.E. Workstation Layout Good lighting 2) 3) 4) No glare, distracting reflection

7) Screen suitable position

8)

9)

Ample work surfaces

Suitable chair/adjustable

10) Footrest if necessary

11) Suitable environment

54

© TWI Gulf WLL 2008

NEBOSH

Page: 224

Other DSE Requirements

Plan work with breaks Provision of eye/eyesight test Training and information Risks from DSE work Importance of good posture Laptops (design, usage)

The Mouse (good posture & technique)

NEBOSH

Page: 224

Display Screen Equipment: Laptops

NEBOSH Page: 224 Display Screen Equipment: Laptops
NEBOSH Page: 224 Display Screen Equipment: Laptops

NEBOSH

Page: 215

Health Effects of Vibrating tools

Acute:

Tingling or pins and needles in the hands and extremities

Chronic:

Numbness and blanching of the fingers Swollen painful joints Reduction in manual dexterity Reduction in the sensation of touch

NEBOSH Page: 215 Health Effects of Vibrating tools Acute: Tingling or pins and needles in the

NEBOSH

Page: 225

Risk Factors of vibrating tools

  • Frequency of the equipment

  • Magnitude of the energy

  • Strength of the grip and other forces

  • Time of exposure

  • Frequency of exposure

  • Low temperature

  • Individual factors

NEBOSH

Page: 225

Control Measures for vibrating tools

  • Eliminate the use of vibrating tools

  • Select low vibration equipment

  • Maintenance of equipment and tools

  • Reducing grip force required

  • Reducing exposure time

  • Introducing health surveillance

  • Provision of gloves and heated pads

  • Information and training on risks and indication of injury

NEBOSH Page: 225 Control Measures for vibrating tools  Eliminate the use of vibrating tools 

NEBOSH

Stress

Page: 226

Is defined as the reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demands placed upon them

Home

Work

Sickness

Kind of work

Children

Physical conditions

Marital

Uncertainty

Financial

Conflict

Travel

Kind of jobs

Bereavement

NEBOSH Stress Page: 226 Is defined as the reaction people have to excessive pressures or other
NEBOSH Stress Page: 226 Is defined as the reaction people have to excessive pressures or other
NEBOSH Stress Page: 226 Is defined as the reaction people have to excessive pressures or other

NEBOSH

Page: 226

Health Effects of Stress

 

PHYSICAL EFFECTS

BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS

Raised heat rate

• • Increased sweating

Increased anxiety Irritability and sudden mood

Headaches

changes

Dizziness

Drink or smoke more

Blurred vision

Difficulty sleeping Poor concentration

Aching neck and shoulders

Inability to deal with tasks

Skin rashes

Lower resistance to infection

NEBOSH

Page: 227

Work Problems of Stress

Results

  • Lack of motivation

  • Lack of commitment

  • Poor timekeeping

  • Increases in mistakes

  • Increases in absence

  • Poor decision making

  • Poor planning

This reflects in relationships

at work as

  • Tension between colleagues and supervisor

  • Poor service to clients

  • Ind. Relationship Problems

  • Increase in discipline Problems

NEBOSH

Page: 227

Problems that lead to stress

  • Culture of the organisation

  • Shift work, Unsociable hours, Excessive Overtime

  • Job insecurity, fear of redundancy

  • Repetitive/Monotonous work

  • Lack of breaks and control over job

  • Work rate too high or too low

  • The working environment

  • Relationships (supervisors & peers)

  • Harassment and bullying

  • Fear of violence

  • Lack of communication

  • Personal & social factors

NEBOSH

Page: 227

Management action to avoid Stress

Clear company objectives

Selection of employees, training, clear defined roles, clear work objectives

Good communication

Realistic work schedules

Close employee involvement

Training and development of staff

Impartial investigation of stress

Policies to recognise and deal with stress

Good management support

Consistency of treatment

NEBOSH

Page: 227

Stress control measures

 

Individual

 

Job

 

Organisation

Selecting

Clearly defined

Clear work objectives

employees

roles

Communication

Training

Comfortable

Employee involvement

 

working

environment

Management support, training and development

Realistic work schedules

Management of change

Grievance

Risk management, openness

procedure

Management style

Investigation of

 

stress (signs / complaints)

Work flexibility

NEBOSH

Page: 228

VIOLENCE AT WORK

HSE Definition:

Any incident in which a person is abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances relating to their work

NEBOSH Page: 228 VIOLENCE AT WORK HSE Definition: Any incident in which a person is abused,

NEBOSH

Page: 228

Areas of Violence at Work

Internal Violence

By fellow employees and this can involve bullying

External Violence

Physical, verbal aggression and assault by people outside the organisation

NEBOSH

Page: 228

Persons at Risk

  • Work involving direct contact with public (Hospitals, Benefits offices, Shops)

  • Work where money or valuables stored

  • Stressful and emotive circumstances exist

  • Work with people suffering mental impairments (Illness, Injury, Substance abuse)

  • Working alone (taxi Drivers)

NEBOSH

Page: 229

Preventative Measures (1)

1) Queue management and information (The time

customers have to spend waiting to pay and their experiences in the queue)

2) Less face to face contact 3) Use “cashless systems” 4) Check credentials and locations

5) Avoid lone working in high risk areas

6) Call in systems for lone workers

7) Arrangements for Staff working late

NEBOSH

Page: 229

Preventative Measures (2)

8) Employee training

9) Change public waiting areas

10) Provide staff with escape routes

11) Video Cameras, alarms, visible security

12) Protective screens/security codes

13) Wider counters/higher floor staff side

NEBOSH

Page: 229

Drugs and Alcohol at Work

NEBOSH

Page: 230

Drugs and Alcohol at Work

  • All new applicants will be screened

  • Random testing will be applied automatically.

  • Test will apply to all staff

  • Testing will be carried out after specific incidents

  • Training for supervision to recognise the problem

  • What help the employer will make available to the employee

  • If an employee brings to the attention of the employer they have a problem it will be treated

with confidence.

  • What are the disciplinary actions the employer will take

NEBOSH

Welding Hazards

Electric shock (arc welding) Oxygen enrichment (gas welding)

Manual handling (cylinder handling)

Fire risk (sparks) Eye damage (UV)

Burns (hot metal)

Fume inhalation

Tripping over cables

Musculoskeletal problems

Page: 231

NEBOSH

Page: 231

Hazards of Busy hotel kitchen

  • Electrical and mechanical hazards associated with machinery such as food mixers & processors

  • Hot surfaces

  • Sharp implements

  • Wet or obstructed floors increasing the risk of slips, trips & falls

  • Boiling water & hot cooking oils causing burns;

  • Manual handling hazards

  • Health hazards (e.g. foodstuffs causing allergic reactions); & cleaning materials that may be corrosive

  • Hot, busy environment of a commercial kitchen

NEBOSH

Page: 232

Other Job Hazards

  • Various cleaning operations

  • Vehicle workshops

  • Fibre insulation in loft

  • Night shift working