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1.Why manufacturing (necessarity of

2.What it comprises of
3.What are the various steps in manufacturing
4.Major manufacturing processes
8 M are inputs for any manufacturing process

2.Services and
Need of customer- main driving force behind the
concept of manufacturing
How to know the need?
1.Historical data
2.Market research
4.Sales forecasting

Marketing dept.
Marketing research people
Unbiased data.
Simulate it
Generate data
Biased data
Refine data
Simulate it.
Generate data
Design engg.
Inventory control Quality control
Need of customer

Feasibility study needs converted to

Design concept formulation

Model formulation

Analysis of model
If found correct

Process planning

.process planning
1.Production planning
2.Design and procurement of new tools
3.Order material
4.NC, CNC, DNC programming


Quality control

(a) Shaping or forming Manufacturing : a solid
product of definite size and shape from a given
material taken in three possible states:
in solid state e.g. forging ,rolling, extrusion,
drawing etc.
in liquid or semi-liquid state e.g. casting,
injection moulding etc.
in powder form e.g. powder metallurgical
(b) Joining process Welding, brazing, soldering etc.
(c) Removal process Machining (Traditional or Non-
(d)metal melting : casting

Mechanical machining :AJM,USM,WJM,AWJM etc.
Thermal machining : LBM, PAM, PAC, EBM, W-EDM
Chemical and electrochemical machining : ECM,
Electro- chemical deburring,
Electro- chemical grinding etc.
Direct use of energy : LBM, EDM, Electro-chemical
machining etc.
Fusion welding
Chemical: thermit welding
Electrical : arc welding
Solid state welding
Electrical: resistance welding
Chemical:explosion welding
Mechanical:friction welding
Expendable mould casting: sand casting, ceramic
shell casting etc.
Permanent mould casting: slush casting, pressure
casting,die casting,squeeze casting etc.

Machine Tools produce desired geometrical
surfaces on solid bodies (preformed blanks)
Characteristics of machine tools: .
1.Devices for firmly holding the tool and work
2.Drives for providing power and motions to
the tool and work
3. Kinematic system to transmit motion and
power from the sources to the tool-work
4.Automation and control systems
5. Structural body
Process of removal of material by a cutting
tool to get the desired dimensions
and in process generating a new surface
1.Generatrix and directrix concept
2.Tool work motions
3.Machine tool drives
4.Mechanism of chip formation

Key principles:
3.Principle of Generation of flat surface
. Principle of generation of cylindrical surfaces
Long straight cylindrical surfaces
Cylindrical surface of short length
Form cylindrical surface
Principle : On a flat plain a straight line called
Generatrix (G) is traversed in a perpendicular
direction called Directrix (D) resulting a flat
The lines representing the Generatrix and
Directrix are obtained by the motions of the
tool-tip (point) relative to the work surface
Types of relative motions:
Formative motions
1. Cutting motion (CM)
2. Feed motion (FM)
Auxiliary motions
Indexing motion

Generatrix (G) Cutting motion (CM) Work (W)
Directrix (D) Feed motion (FM) Tool (T)
Generatrix : provided by the cutting motion imparted
. to the cutting tool
Directrix : provided by the feed motion of the work.
. G CM T
. D FM W

Tracing (Tr) .continuous line is attained as a trace
of path of a moving point .
Forming (F) .Generatrix is simply the profile of the
cutting edge
Tangent Tracing (TTr) .Directrix is taken as the
tangent to the series of paths traced by the cutting
edges .
Generation (G): G or D is obtained as an envelope
being tangent to the instantaneous positions of a line
or surface which is rolling on another surface
Gear generation by hobbing is an example of
A long straight cylindrical surface : is obtained by a
circle (G) being traversed in the direction (D) parallel
to the axis
A cylindrical surface of short length : is obtained by
traversing a straight line (G) along a circular path (D

Form cylindrical surfaces : by rotating a curved line
(G) in a circular path (D)
1.Material ahead of tool undergoes plastic
2.Crack formation in deforming zone
3.Small lump of material moves up the rake
4.Crack propagation (either in interior or
towards the surface)
Favourable conditions:
1.Ductile material
2.High speed
3.Low feed and depth of cut
4.High back rake angle

Favourable conditions:
1.Brittle materials
2.Low speed
3.High speed and depth of cut
4.Low back rake angle
chips with Built up edge
Favourable conditions:
1. Ductile material
2. Low speed
3. High feed and depth of cut

.Stepped drives : 1.very common in conventional .
machine tools .
2. discrete number of speeds and feeds are available
3.preferably in G.P. (Geometric Progression) series
4.Attained by using gear boxes or pulleys + power
stepless drives: 1.common in modern CNC machine
2.enable optimum selection and
3.flexibly automatic control of the speeds and feeds.
4. attained usually by :
(a) Variable speed AC or DC motors
(b) Stepper or servomotors
(c) Hydraulic power pack