Você está na página 1de 22

Charts and Graphs

Reasons to create charts and graphs:

Provide a visual representation of data.


Effectively clarify
information.
Represent many
different types of data.
Charts and graphs can be incorporated into any
medium.
Reports
Web Pages
Posters
Word Processing Document
Desktop Publishing Document

Rules for any graph:


2: A title

3: Explanations of
symbols

1: Clearly labelled axes,


units where appropriate

The distribution of pH values


in ponds on Wimbledon Common
7

Shows maxima and


minima

pH
6

Pond #

TYPES OF GRAPHS
Bar

Graphs
Pie Charts
Line Graphs
Ogives
Area Graphs

Bar Graph
A

bar graph is used to show


relationships between groups.
The two items being compared do
not need to affect each other.
It's a fast way to show big
differences. Notice how easy it is
to read a bar graph.

Chocolate Milk Sold

120

112

Amount Sold

100
80

76

72

60

53

40

33

20
0
Monday
Monday
Wednesday
Friday

Tuesday
Tuesday
Thursday

Wednesday

Day

Thursday

Friday

TYPES OF BAR GRAPHS


Vertical

bar graph
Horizontal bar graph
Grouped bar graph
Stacked bar graph

Data from the census of India


Year (Grouped
Year)

19501955
19551960
19601965
19651970
19701975
19751980
19801985
19851990
19901995
19952000
20002005
20052010

Number of
Births

168,32,000
179,81,000
190,86,000
206,11,000
220,22,000
240,03,000
255,77,000
269,35,000
275,66,000
274,43,000
271,58,000
272,71,000

No of Deaths.

99,28,000
96,86,000
93,58,000
90,57,000
88,21,000
85,84,000
87,63,000
90,73,000
94,00,000
94,58,000
95,45,000
97,57,000

Death vs Birth
2005-10
2000-05
1995-00
1990-95
1985-90
1980-85
1975-80
1970-75
1965-70
1960-65
1955-60
1950-55
0

5,000,000

10,000,000

15,000,000
Death

Column1

20,000,000

25,000,000

30,000,000

Now if we only consider the


number of births

Row 4

Row 3

Row 2

Year

5,000,000
1950-55
1980-85

10,000,000
1955-60
1985-90

15,000,000
1960-65
1990-95

20,000,000

1965-70
1995-00

1970-75
2000-05

25,000,000
1975-80
2005-10

30,000,000

Circle Graph or Pie Graph

A circle graph is used to


show how a part of
something relates to the
whole.
This kind of graph is
needed to show
percentages effectively.

Chocolate Milk Sold

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

Class Election for CR


Name of Candidate

No. of Votes

Rishabh

10

Shambhavi

14

Ritvec

No Vote

No. of Votes in CR Election


Rishabh
Shambhavi
Ritvec
No Vote

Line Graph
A

line graph is used to show continuing data; how one


thing is affected by another.
It's clear to see how things are going by the rises and
falls a line graph shows.
Chocolate MIlk Sold
120

Amount Sold

100
80
60
40
20
0
Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday
Day

Chocolate

Thursday

Friday

Sex Ratio of India

Year

Sex Ratio

1901

972

1911

964

1921

955

1931

950

1941

943

1951

946

1961

941

1971

930

1981

934

1991

927

2001

933

2011

940

980

Sex Ratio

970
960
950
940
930
920
910
900
1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

OGIVES
Cumulative

histograms, also known as ogives,


are graphs that can be used to determine how
many data values lie above or below a
particular value in a data set.
Ogives can be of two types:
Less than ogives
More than ogives

Year

Number Of
Births.

Year

Number
of
Deaths.

After 1950

2824,85,000 Before 1955

168,32,000

After 1955

2656,53,000 Before 1960

348,13,000

After 1960

2476,72,000 Before 1965

538,99,000

After 1965

2285,86,000 Before 1970

745,10,000

After 1970

2079,75,000 Before 1975

965,32,000

After 1975

1859,53,000

Before 1980

1205,35,000

After 1980

1619,50,000

Before 1985

1461,12,000

After 1985

1363,73,000

Before 1990

1730,47,000

After 1990

1094,38,000

Before 1995

2006,13,000

After 1995

818,72,000

Before 2000

2280,56,000

After 2000

544,29,000

Before 2005

2552,14,000

After 2005

272,71,000

Before 2010

2824,85,000

No. of Births
300,000,000
250,000,000
200,000,000
150,000,000
100,000,000
50,000,000
0
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
After

Column3

A frequency polygon.

No. of Births Polygon


30000000
25000000
20000000
15000000
10000000
5000000
0
1947

1952

1957

1962

1967

1972

1977

1982

Series 3

1987

1992

1997

2002

2007

2012

AREA GRAPHS
Anarea

chartorarea graphdisplays
graphically quantitive data. It is based
on theline chart.
Area charts are used to represent
cumulated totals using numbers or
percentages (stacked area charts in this
case) over time. Use the area chart for
showing trends over time among related
attributes.

An Area Graph of the


population of Delhi
10000000
8000000
6000000
4000000
2000000
0

Female
Male

A similar graph but


with the data of the
country.
20000000
15000000
10000000
5000000
0

4025 11330 18635 25940 33245 40550


373 7678 14983 22288 29593 36898

Female
Male