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Excellent teaching and learning

students background and

study behaviour
Teacher Training
course 28.10.10
Lone Krogh
Third group discussion
Which are (in our opinion) the most
important competences (learning
ourtcome) students may achieve during
university studies (professionally,
technically, generally and personally)?

Please, write max 5 statements on flipover
What do we have to learn
The kind of learning we are interested in is
learning which implies that the learners develop
capabilities for seeing or experiencing situations
or phenomena in certain ways..Students
must be prepared for the unknown variation
among situations in the future through
experiencing variation in their education, which
will enable them to discern critical aspects of
novel situations (Bowden og Marton, 1998, s. 24).
A new Qualification framework

The new QF is being implemented in
Danish accreditation legislation
Goals are here defined as the learning
outcome, which you may expect new
candidates to have achieved.
What is a qualifications framework?
A comprehensive and systematic description of what a
student is able to know, understand and do after a
given period (with completion of a program, after a
module, a semester, a course, laboratory work, field
work or project work).
A specific characteristic of the qualifications framework is
that levels and degrees are described in terms of what
learning outcomes a student has achieved at the end
of a process (at the end of the study programme, after a
module, field work, lab. work, a course a.s.o.) and with
focus on the students learning (knowledge, skills and
A qualification framework
increases the transparency and comparability of qualifications and
may thereby

facilitate credit transfer and mobility on a national and international
facilitate recognition of foreign qualifications
make the degree structures more transparent
improve the basis for educational planning and evaluation.

Information about the hew Qualification framework can be found here:

The learning outcome in the new QF is
divided into 3 overall categories:
Key words:
1. Knowledge: Knowledge, understanding and
2. Skills: Different type of skills related to
workplace occupation,
evaluation of theoretical and practical
problems and decisions,
Communication of subject relevant problems
and solutions
3. Competences: Action, collaboration,
responsibility, learning

Still within the framework: 1) Employability 2) Mobility 3) Lifelong Leaning,

uddannelser/?searchterm=Ny dansk kvalifikationsramme

Learning outcome

Learning outcome is statements of what a learner is expected to
know, understand and/or able to do at the end of a period of
learning (Bologna Conference in Edinburgh 1-2 July, 2004)

Learning outcome statements are typically characterized by use of
active verbs, which express knowledge, understanding, application,
analyses, synthesis and evaluation
An example
..after module xxx ....... the student has knowledge of,
can analyze and reflect on and understand the
application of it and the methodology, can master
methodologies at a high level within the field and can,
independently as well as in collaboration with others,
develop the subject areas methodologies and
techniques in a work context and evaluate the quality of
the results.

See inspiration material on INS homepage:
Bachelors level: Persons optaining degrees
at this level must
Possess knowledge of theories, methodologies and practice of
a professions or one of more subject areas
Be able to understand and reflect on theories, methodologies
and practice
Skills Be able to apply the methodologies and tools of one or more
subject areas as well as apply skills related to work whithin the
subject area(s) or in the profession
Be able to evaluate theoretical and practical issues as well as
explain the reasons for and choose relevant solution models
Be able to communicate academic issues and solution models
to peers and non-specialists or collaboration partners and
Competences Be able to handle complex and development-oriented
situations in study or work contexts
Be able to independently participate in discipline-specific and
interdisciplinary collaboration with a professional approach
Be able to identify their own learning needs and organise their
own learning in different learning enviroments
Masters level: Persons optaining degrees at this level
Possess knowledge of one or more subject areas which, in
selected fields, is based on the highest international research
within a subject area
Be able to understand and, on a scientific basis, reflect on the
knowledge of the subject area(s) as well as be able to identify
scientific issues
Skills Master scientific methodologies and tools of the subject
area(s) as well as master general skills related to work within
the subject area(s)
Be able to evaluate and select among the scientific theories,
methodologies, tools and general skills of the subject area(s),
and set up, on a scientific basis, new analysis and solution
Be able to communicate research-based knowledge and
discuss professional and scientific issues with both peers and
Competences See next slide.
Masters level (continued) : Persons optaining
degrees at this level must
Competences Be able to manage work situations and developments that
are complex, unpredictable and require new solution
Be able to independently initiate and carry out discipline-
specific and interdisciplinary collaboration and assume
professional responsibility
Be able to independently take responsibility for their own
professional development and specilisation

Taxonomy (Bloom,1956/Anderson & Krathwohl, 2000)
Competence Skills Demonstrated
1. Remember
Rote learning. Recalling and recognizing
knowledge from memory, when used to produce
definnitions, facts or recite or retrieve material
2. Understanding
Constructing meaning from different types of
functions (written or graphic) messages activities
like interpreting, exemplifying, classifying,
summarizing, comparing, explaining
3. Applying
Carrying out or using a procedure through
executing or implementing
4. Analyzing
Mental actions incl.the function of differentiating,
organizing, attributing and being able to
distinguish between components
5. Evaluating Making judgements based on criteria and
standards thorugh checking and critiquing
6. Creating
Reorganizing elements into a new pattern or
structure through generating, planning or
producing. (synthesize parts into someeting new)
Low level
High level


SOLO-taxonomy (Strucured Observed
Learning Outcome) (Biggs, 2003)

Misses points
Extended abstract:
Simple naming, identifying, rote-learning, referring,
summarizing a.s.o.
Disorganized collection of items (shopping-list),
Analysing, integration of data. Understanding how to apply
the concept to a familiar data set or to a problem
Apply, transfer, relate, question and go beyond
existing principles, reflect scientifically, theorise, gene-
ralise, set up hypothesis, critizise known theory a.s.o.
Dimensions of students
learning/competence development
Level of knowledge and abilities
(Bloom or SOLO)
petence goals
Learning goals (examples):
When the course/seminar/project
a.s.o. is ended it is expected that
the student
is acquanted with//has
knowledge about, understand
and masters .,can
understand, explain and make
use of basic methods and
identify and precisely
argue deeply
analyse and evaluate
demonstrate the ability to use
Carry out
Insp. Rump, 2007
Students their backgrounds and
study behaviour

4th group discussion

Try to characterize your students what do you
know about them, their backgrounds and how is
their study behaviour (How do they work)?
What does your knowledge about students
means for the choices you have to make in
relation to your teaching

Please, write max 5 statements on Flipover
Facts about students at Danish

Most women
Very few among ethnic minorities
Far more students from families with parents with a higher
education background
The recruitment to higher education is almost as wrong to day as it
was 30 years ago (in spite of a general political consensus about
giving all young people equal possibilites for education)
There are big differences between university students social
backgrounds, dependent on which university education and
educational institution we are talking about!

Jens Peter Thomasen, Dpt. of Psychology and Educational Research, Roskilde University

Who are the students?
Studens have very diverse background and motivations

Very much motivated (20 %)
Moderate motivated (30-40%)
The minimalists (40-50%)

Challenges: Among the minimalists we find an unknown group of
late bloomers

(Lauvs, 2004)

Different learning strategies
Deep approach to learning

Focus on understanding
Demonstration of the
relationship between
connections and the whole
Connections beyond the
immediate subject area
Generalisation and transfer of
the principles from the
specific to the abstract

(Biggs, 2007)

Surface approach to learning

Focus on demands
Try to remember
Acquiring pieces of unconnected
No organization no overall
Simple and obvious connections
The significance of connections
is not demonstrated (a number
of connections)
The significance of the
relationship between
connections is not demonstrated

Is academically committed, bright, interested in her studies
and wants to do well
Has clear academic career plans
What she learns is important to her. (She goes about learing
in a more traditional academic way)
Comes to the lectures with sound, relevant background
knovledge and possible some questions, she wants answered
or it may not be the answer she is looking for, and she
speculates, wondering why it isnt

Students like Susan virtually teach themselves, with little
help from teachers
Is at university in order to obtain a qualification for a decent job
He is not studying in the area of his first choice
He is less committed than Susan
He comes to the lecure with few questions
He wants to put in just sufficient effort to pass
Robert hears the lecturer saying the same words as Susan, but he
does not see a keystone, - just another brick to be recorded in his
lecture notes
He belives that if he can record enough of these bricks, and
remember them on cue, he will keep out of trouble on examn.

We are told that there ar many Roberts!
Study oriented
Goal-oriented (the most necessary things)
Focussed on exams

(Pettersen, 2005)
See the Biggs video


YouTube video: A vision for students today: a short video
summarizing some of the most important characteristics of
students today - how they learn, what they need to learn, their
goals, hopes, dreams, what their lives will be like, a.s.o.

Michael Wesch is Professor of Cultural Anthropology at
Kansas State University, among other things head of the
project Digital Ethnography with intensions:
to exploring and extending the possibilities of digital
See some of the groups YouTube videos for instance. Web
2.0 The Machine is Us/ing Us, der []

How can we plan and conduct
excellent and effective teaching?
possibilites and challenges
To be continued..
5th group discussion
Now please, suggest some examples on/or principles for excellent
and relevant teaching and lesson plans, which take into
consideration and meet some of the formal demands for students
learning outcome within different areas and at the same time meet
students diversity. what do you have to consider in the planning
and which would be the best methods and enviroments to support
students in their learning processes?

Please, write suggestions on the flip over-paper
Some kind of evidence for good
teaching and learning enviroments
Well defined and clear structure for teaching
Enough time for learning
Learning supported working climate
Clearness and transparency in terms of content
Meaningful communication
Variety of teaching methods
Individuality (students individual learning needs)
Intelligent training
Transparency in expectations to the students
Stimulating learning environments
(Meyer, 2005 p. 17 f)

Excellent teaching from the teachers and
students point of view . The teacher. (Ramsden, 1996 p.

The teacher:
Has a desire to share his/her love of the subject with the students,
Has abilities to make the material being taught stimulating and
Has facilities for engaging with students at their level of understanding,
Has a capacity to explain absolutely clear what has to be understood, at
what level, and why,
Shows concern and respect for students,
Feels committed to encourage student independence,
Has abilities to improvise and adapt to new demands,
Uses teaching methods and academic tasks that require students to
learn thoughtfully, responsibly and cooperatively,
Uses valid assessment methods,
Focuses on key concepts, and students misunderstandings of them,
rather than on covering the ground,
Give the highest-quality feedback on students work,
Has a desire to learn from students and other sources about the effects
on teaching and how it can be improved.

Study programmes are to develop study-activities
which support the students in their learning processes
towards the objectives and goals for the sudies

A good teaching system alligns teaching methods
and assessment to the learning activities stated in
the objectives, so that all aspects of this system act
in accord to support appropriate learning

Biggs, 2007
The didactics: Constrsuctive
(Biggs 2003)
Students background
and diversity
Study context
Students freedom of
Study enviroments
Exam regulations
Study- and learning
project-work in groups
(or individually)
Courses etc.
Students freedom of
choices students
perception of
knowledge and skills
Learning outcome
Higher order skills
and knowledge
transferable skills,
and inter-
disciplinarity etc.)
The theory and practice of teaching and learning: Didaktik -
A frame for analysing, planning and teaching: Alignment


National and
Politics (Bologna)


PBL model
Stratetic Johnny
Research-based teaching?
You work together with the students and discuss the basis of the
subjects not just educational books and theories
Basic activities, related to the subject and its methods are being
practicised not only mentioned
Students are invited to participate in the community of professional
researchers and teachers
Students are being guided in working and writing academically
Students are involved in authentic research projects
The professional academic community (the university) is in contact
with academic practioners outside the university
The teachers are researchers

(T. K. Jensen, 2006)
Evaluation/assessment - 3 integrated
1. The summative function: assessment of
students learning outcome
2. The formative function: feedback to students
about their strengths and weaknesses
3. Students evaluation of teaching and the
educational system. Goal: to improve practice
(also formative)

NB: Summative evaluation must have
formative functions

Evaluation/assessment of students have a much greater
influence on how and what students learn than any other
single factor
3 critical points:

The validity of exams are generally low (it often does not measure learning
outcome such as understanding and relevant competence development)
Tests and exams have very strong controling effect on study activities (not
in a way that the students learn leading subject related concepts, principles
a.s.o but rather learn to solve predictable assignments)
Exams often keep students in a passive role

Ref. Lauvs and Jakobsen, 2002) and (Sadler, 2005),
(Boud,1988), (Gibbs,1999), (Cowan, 2003).
If we want to encourage them (the students) to
take a deep rather than a surface approach to
the development of ..skills, we need to
design practical assignments intelligently. We
need to think not just about the assessment
criteria but also about weighting, timing, agency
and fitness for purpose, with imaginative
consideration of methods and approaches that
can challenge students, be inclusive and suit the
topic, context, cohort and level (Boud in Pickford and Brown,
Some advices for assessment in
higher education
Link assessment to learning (alignment)
Never assess without giving comments to students about how they
might improve
Learn from your students mistakes. Use assessment to discover their
misunderstandings, then modify teaching to address them
Deploy a variety of assessment methods
Try to get students participating in the assessment process, through;
a. Discussions of appropiate methods and how the methods relate to
the (course) goals
b. Joint staff-student design of assessment questions and negotiation of
criteria for success and failure
c. Self- and peer assessment activities
d. Offering students responsible choices among different methods
Focus on validiy (what you are measuring important?) and then
reliability (is your test consistent?)
Do everything in your power to lessen the anxiety raised by
(Ramsden, 1996, s. 204-205)

Formative evaluation of teaching is a tool
for the teacher to be wiser about the
teaching and then afterwards improving it

never ask the students directly if they are
satisfied with the teaching without asking
them about their own work-rate?
People learn
10% of what they read
20% of what they hear
30% of what they see
50% of what they see and hear
70% of what they talk over with others
80% of what they use and do in real life
95% of what they teach someone else

William Glasser, quoted by Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Department, Guide 1988.
Different teaching and learning