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He studied childrens intellectual

He found that from the moment of birth,
children acted upon, transformed their
environment, and were shaped by the
consequences of their actions
Piaget believed intellectual growth is based
on a childs:
maturational level
experiences with objects
interactions with people
internal self-regulating mechanism that
responds to environmental stimuli
- interactions with the environment caused
people to organize patterns of thought,
which they used to interpret or make sense
of their experience
- For example, young children who believe the
sun is alive because it moves are operating on
the schema that moving things are alive

Interpreting new information in terms
of existing information
For example, as children develop, they
may regard other moving objects
(animals, wind-up toy) as alive as well
Understanding of differences between
nonliving and living object
Revising, readjusting, or realigning existing
schema to accept new information
For example, trees do not move but yet
they are alive
A combination of assimilation and
Harmonious relationships between thought
processes and the environment
Infant (Birth to 1 year)
Initial reflexes replaced by voluntary movements
Object permanence
Discriminates between persons
Comprehends word meanings
Responds to noises
vocalizes with ooosand aahs
laughs and squeals
turns head to sound of a rattle
Pronounces single-syllable words
Begins speaking two and then three-word

The concept of object permanence is fully
Toddlers demonstrate memory of events
that relate to them
Language increases to about 400 words
Preoperational thoughts do not allow the
toddler to understand other viewpoints,
but symbolize objects and people in order
to imitate activities they have seen

Preschooler (2 to 5 years)
Preconceptual (2-4 years)
Visual appearances
Misconception: artificialism, animism, and imminent
Intuitive (begins around age 4)
Can classify information
Become aware of cause-and- effect relationships
Vocabulary continues to increase
Can speak in sentences, is able to identify colors,
and enjoys talking
Begins to understand the concepts of the past,
present, and future
May comprehend days of the week by the end of
preschool year
School-Age (5 to 12 years)
Weight and volumes seen as unchanging
Is able to understand simple analogies
Is able to understand time (days, seasons)
Can define many works and understand rules of
Classifies more complex information
Is able to understand various emotions people

Adolescent (12-20 years)
Is capable of thinking at an adult level
Abstract thought is possible and can understand
Can evaluate the quality of his/her own thinking
Attention span becomes longer
Develop jargon within group
Emphasizes the importance of
communication and interaction with
children according to their ages
Infant (Sensorimotor Stage)
Provide toys, mobiles, and bright pictures to
engage infant
Maintain a safe environment

Preschooler (preoperational stage)
Carefully explain experiences related to illness
Reassure they are not responsible for illness
School-Aged (concrete operational stage)
Be knowledgeable of childs capability of mature
thought and need to manipulate or see objects to
Provide important details
Allow children to manipulate or at least see the
equipment used in treatments
Adolescents (formal operations)
Assess their learning needs
Provide complete and clearly understood
Reeducate or clarify to help them learn more
about their disease and its care
Acknowledge that some may not have
developed mature abstract thought and provide
information at a more concrete or individualized

Piaget has had a major influence on
cognitive theory
Has brought focus on mental processes
and their role in behavior
Has influenced caregivers and teachers to
understand the stages of development
Has raised questions and projects related to
learning in educational settings
The theory pays little attention to emotions
and motivation on learning
Underestimates the adult interactions
Does not fully explain the progress from one
stage to another
Neither acknowledges that people may
advance to a certain cognitive level nor the
idea that some people never reach the higher
stages of abstract thought