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Submitted by :

Jaikishan patel
Piyush Lilwani
Sachin Pandya
Sanjay Bhadani
Zubin Choksi

Introduction
Different Building Techniques
Techniques to reduce cost from area
Materials used
Constructed techniques adopted
Materials used in low cost building
Laurie Baker



+ Low cost housing refers to houses that are
inexpensive to build. IT doesn't mean that the houses
will be inexpensive to live in.

+ Less the house costs to build, the more energy it
tends to waste, leading to much higher utility bills.

+ The goal of low-cost housing is to save money while
also maintaining buildings quality.

+ Following Properties Reduces Cost Construction:
Locally available materials .
Improved skills and technology.
Without sacrificing the strength, performance and life
of the structure.

+ Low cost housing is done by proper management of
resources as well as by utilizing cheap building
materials.
1. Recycling

2. Extensive Planning

3. Modular Planning

4. Infilling
Recycled materials adapted for low-cost housing include wood and rubber.

Are previously been used.

Reprocessed into materials that are used in building walls and other parts of a
house.

Recycled glass and metal are also used on occasion.

These recycled materials are often less expensive than using fully natural products.
In extensive planning, the more planning goes
into a house, the less the actual construction
will cost.

Contractors should plan out exact dimensions.

Contractors should gather facts.

Contractors should look for the best materials
at the cheapest prices so they can order exactly
what they need.
This saves money that would otherwise be
wasted on unnecessary supplies and cleanup
caused by littered materials.

Most houses are built as quickly as possible
without this detailed planning beforehand.
+ Modular building is a type of construction
where pieces of the home or typically whole
rooms or major parts of rooms ,are built off-site
in large factories.
+ This process allows the pieces to be built
efficiently and exactly according to building
standards.
+ At the site, the pieces are connected to the
house.
+ Owners can typically choose how many
modular rooms they want.
+ Since materials aren't assembled on-site,
owners save money on construction time,
including the time it would take to clear away the
construction debris.
+ Owners also save money on construction
financing interest if they're using a construction
loan.
Infilling is the practice of going back
through residential areas and building in
areas that had previously been left
empty.

Now its possible to build on because of
resolved environmental concerns, space
issues or other problems that have since
been remedied.

Infilling makes better use of existing
space.

It is less expensive for contractors
overall

1) Reduce plinth area by using thinner wall
concept.
2) Use locally available material in an innovative
form like soil cement blocks in place of burnt
brick.
3) Use energy efficiency materials which
consumes less energy like concrete block in
place of burnt brick.
4) Use environmentally friendly materials which
are substitute for conventional building
components like use R.C.C. Door and window
frames in place of wooden frames.
5) Preplan every component of a house and
rationalize the design procedure for reducing
the size of the component in the building.
6) By planning each and every component of a
house the wastage of materials due to
demolition of the unplanned component of the
house can be avoided.
Interlock house build at
Vallikkunnu panchayath,
Malappuram District, Kerala.
Won the 2010 "Parpidam Best
Home Award"
Construction cost of this house
is 3 lakh

Different types of Material could be use like:-
It is made of mud stabilized with 5% cement/lime etc. and
compacted in block making machine with no burning. A good walling
material as burnt bricks and is economical, stronger, energy saving and
simple to manufacture.

It is much stronger with less water absorption and cheaper
than cement stabilized blocks. With 5 to 10% flyash- G, 30% saving
in cement could be achieved in addition to utilization of the waste
product like flyash.
Produced from alumina red mud or bauxite, an industrial
waste of aluminum producing plants in combination with clay.
Posses all the physical properties of normal clay bricks and
solves the problem of disposal of the waste product and
environmental pollution. In addition, they have good
architectural value as facing bricks due to their pleasing hues
of color.

It is made to similar dimension of stone blocks without
large size stone pieces, but using coarse and fine graded
cement. They have excellent properties comparable to other
masonry blocks, are cheaper and facilitate speedy
construction and especially suitable where quality clay for
bricks making is not available.


Bamboo
Straw
Cored wood
Rammed Earth
Pressed Earth blocks
Wattle and daub
Stone

No.

Material /
Technology


On-site preparation and
construction

Inference
1 Bamboo It does not need any
manufacturing in factories.
Preparation on the site
involves only the cutting of
bamboo to obtain desired
lengths.
No skilled labour is required
to handle bamboo.
Any learned mason can teach
another mason how to deal
with the material.

There is versatility in
construction.
Since there is no particular
sort of manufacturing or
preparing required for
bamboo, money at that
part is saved.
Construction period is also
short.
Thus construction cost is
reduced by 30-35%.


No.

Material /
Technology


On-site preparation and
construction

Inference
2 Straw For preparing a straw bale
wall, bundle of straw tightly
bound with twine or wire.
Bales are commonly finished
with plaster.
Row of straw bales are
stacked one on top of the
other (often in running-bond)
on a raised footing
or foundation.

Straw is an abundant
agricultural waste product.
Requires little energy to
bale and transport for
construction.
Stacking of the bales take
very less time.
Saves in construction cost
by 30%.

No.

Material /
Technology


On-site preparation and
construction

Inference
3 Cored wood Logs are cut on site to
desired length.
They are laid with consistent
mortar gaps protruding no
more than 1 inch on the
inside and outside.
A layer of mortar is spread
and then insulation poured in
between. Then more logs
follow on top.

It is an economical use for
log ends or fallen trees in
heavily timbered areas.
Constuction is very fast.
Construction cost is
reduced by 20%


No.

Material /
Technology


On-site preparation and
construction

Inference
4 Rammed earth Two parallel planks are held
firmly apart by metal rods
and clips or bolts, or by-small
crosspieces of wood.
Stiff mud is thrown in
between these two planks
and rammed down with
either a wooden or metal
ramrod.
The use of mud reduces
the cost of the wall by 15%


No.

Material /
Technology


On-site preparation and
construction

Inference
5 Pressed earth blocks On site Machine Compressed
blocks.
using a small amount of
stabilizer.
Hard physical work is
required in making blocks.
But time for making the
blocks is less.
so cost is reduced by 10%.


No.

Material /
Technology


On-site preparation and
construction

Inference
6 Wattle and daub Strips of bamboo made first
as a framework.
Then simply covered with
plaster and the wall is ready.
It is fast and therefore
inexpensive.
There is not much material
cost involved.
neither is labour intensive.
Cost of wall is reduced by
20-25%.

No.

Material /
Technology


On-site preparation and
construction

Inference
7 Stone Walls are made by randomly
placing stone and not
following any particular
course.
Smaller stones may be used in
areas where the natural stone
shape is rounded.

This can be done very fast
and the wall is complete in
minutes.
This saves 30-40% of the
money.
1. Foundation
2. Wall
3. Lintel
4. Roof
5. Door and
windows

+ The foundation cost comes to about 10 to 15% of
the total building
+It is adopted for single or double storey building.
+ It is recommended to adopt a foundation depth of 2
ft.(0.6m) for normal soil like gravely soil, red soils etc.
+ We should use the uncoursed rubble masonry with
the bond stones and good packing.
+To avoid cracks formation in foundation the masonry
shall be thoroughly packed with cement mortar of 1:8
boulders and bond stones at regular intervals.
+ Suggested to adopt arch foundation in ordinary soil
for effecting reduction in construction cost up to 40%.
+ This kind of foundation will help in bridging the
loose pockets of soil which occurs along the
foundation.
+ In the case black cotton and other soft soils it is
recommend to use under ream pile foundation which
saves about 20 to 25% in cost over the conventional
method of construction.
Wall thickness of 6 to 9 is recommended for adoption
in the construction of walls all-round the building and
41/2 for inside walls.
It is suggested to use burnt bricks which are immersed
in water for 24 hours and then shall be used for the
walls.
Making use of Rat trap bond wall & Concrete block
wall.

* It is a cavity wall construction and leads to reduction
in the quantity of bricks required for masonry work.
* By adopting this method of bonding of brick masonry
compared to traditional English or Flemish bond
masonry, it is possible to reduce in the material cost of
bricks by 25% and about 10to 15% in the masonry cost.
* By adopting rat-trap bond method one can create
aesthetically pleasing wall surface and plastering can
be avoided.
In view of high energy consumption by burnt
brick it is suggested to use concrete block
which consumes about only 1/3 of the energy
of the burnt bricks in its production.

By using concrete block masonry the wall
thickness can be reduced from 20 cms to 15
Cms.

* Concrete block masonry saves mortar
consumption, speedy construction of wall
resulting in higher output of labour, plastering
can be avoided thereby an overall saving of 10
to 25% can be achieved.
The traditional R.C.C. lintels which are
costly can be replaced by brick arches for
small spans and save construction cost
up to 30 to 40% over the traditional
method of construction.

By adopting arches of different shapes a
good architectural pleasing appearance
can be given to the external wall
surfaces of the brick masonry.
Normally 5" thick R.C.C. slabs is used for roofing of
residential buildings.
By adopting rationally designed construction practices like
filler slab and precast elements the construction cost of
roofing can be reduced by about 20 to 25%.
Filler slabs
* They are normal RCC slabs where bottom half (tension)
concrete portions are replaced by filler materials such as
bricks, tiles, cellular concrete blocks, etc
* These filler materials are so placed as not to compromise
structural strength, result in replacing unwanted and
nonfunctional tension concrete, thus resulting in economy.
* These are safe, sound and provide aesthetically pleasing
pattern ceilings and also need no plaster.

IT IS SUGGESTED NOT TO USE WOOD
FOR DOORS AND WINDOWS AND IN ITS
PLACE CONCRETE OR STEEL SECTION
FRAMES SHALL BE USED FOR
ACHIEVING SAVING IN COST UP TO 30
TO 40%.
SIMILIARLY FOR SHUTTERS
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE BLOCK
BOARDS, FIBRE OR WOODEN
PRACTICAL BOARDS ETC., SHALL BE
USED FOR REDUCING THE COST BY
ABOUT 25%.
BY ADOPTING BRICK JELLY WORK AND
PRECAST COMPONENTS EFFECTIVE
VENTILATION COULD BE PROVIDED TO
THE BUILDING AND ALSO THE
CONSTRUCTION COST COULD BE SAVED
UP TO 50% OVER THE WINDOW
COMPONENTS.
ALUMINIUM, IRON, CONCRETE FRAMES
CAN BE USED


Plantation timber styles
with particle board inserts.
Medium density fiber board
doors.
Cement bonded particle
board
Plantation timber style with
rice husk board inserts
Red mud polymer panel
doors.
Ferrocement doors
Polyvinyl chloride doors
panels.

Bamboo mat board
Coir composite board
Jute polyester composite
Bamboo laminated composite Cement bonded particle board
Bamboo mat veneer composite
Born in 2 March 1917.
Was an award-winning British-born Indian
architect.
Renowned for his initiatives in cost-effective
energy-efficient architecture.
He never maintained a regular office.
Often sketched on waste paper.
Designed largely on site.
Built Houses for lower-middle to lower class
clients.
Made a name for himself both in sustainable
architecture as well as in organic architecture.
Made many concepts related to low cost
housing.
Died on 1 April 2007 at the age of 90.




This is Bakers home in Trivandrum.

Unique house built on a plot of land
along the slope of a rocky hill, with
limited access to water.

Bakers genius has created a wonderful
home for his family.
Material used from unconventional
sources.

Family eats in kitchen.

Electricity wiring is not concealed

Made Use of BRICK JALLIS.
Effective way to minimize your electricity
bills.
Built In Furniture For The Hamlet.
BUILDING MATERIAL:

+ RECYCLED Wood from traditional demolished
building.
+ All materials are used in their natural form, exposed brick work,
mortar, concrete shows the truthfulness of materials.

+ Bakers loves to material in their natural form.
Surface treatment was done by
Using Waste Materials

QUALITY OF SPACES
According to Baker, fans and lamps can be avoided through appropriate planning.
In india there is sunlight all round the year, which means that if water is stored in the
southern part of the house, hot water can be made available.
Garbage can be recycled.
Only a person like baker has the courage for this, because his motive is not just to make
money

http://www.gharexpert.com
http://www.fs.fed.us
http://www.greenstone.org
http://manajemenproyekindonesia.com/
http://sepindia.org/
http://lauriebaker.net/