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Divyanshu Prakash
B.tech/3
rd
Yr./EEE
Mewar University, Chittorgarh
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Contents
a. Load-Flow analysis
b. Introduction to Newton Raphson Method

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Gauss Iteration
There are a number of different iterative methods
we can use. We'll consider two: Gauss and Newton.
With the Gauss method we need to rewrite our
equation in an implicit form: x = h(x)
To iterate we fir
(0)
( +1) ( )
st make an initial guess of x, x ,
and then iteratively solve x ( ) until we
find a "fixed point", x, such that x (x).
v v
h x
h
=
=
3
Gauss Iteration Example
( 1) ( )
(0)
( ) ( )
Example: Solve - 1 0
1
Let k = 0 and arbitrarily guess x 1 and solve
0 1 5 2.61185
1 2 6 2.61612
2 2.41421 7 2.61744
3 2.55538 8 2.61785
4 2.59805 9 2.61798
v v
v v
x x
x x
k x k x
+
=
= +
=
4
Stopping Criteria
( ) ( ) ( 1) ( )
A key problem to address is when to stop the
iteration. With the Guass iteration we stop when
with
If x is a scalar this is clear, but if x is a vector we
need to generalize t
v v v v
x x x x c
+
A < A
( )
2
i
2
1
he absolute value by using a norm
Two common norms are the Euclidean & infinity
max x
v
j
n
i i
i
x
x
c

=
A <
A = A A = A

x x
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Gauss Power Flow
*
* * *
i
1 1
* * * *
1 1
*
*
1 1,
*
*
1,
We first need to put the equation in the correct form
S
S
S
S 1
i i
i
i
n n
i i i ik k i ik k
k k
n n
i i i ik k ik k
k k
n n
i
ik k ii i ik k
k k k i
n
i
i ik k
ii k k i
V I V Y V V Y V
V I V Y V V Y V
Y V Y V Y V
V
V Y V
Y
V
= =
= =
= = =
= =
| |
= = =
|
\ .
= = =
= = +
|
=


|
|
|
\ .
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Gauss Two Bus Power Flow Example
A 100 MW, 50 Mvar load is connected to a generator
through a line with z = 0.02 + j0.06 p.u. and line charging of 5 Mvar
on each end (100 MVA base). Also, there is a 25 Mvar capacitor at
bus 2. If the generator voltage is 1.0 p.u., what is V
2
?
S
Load
= 1.0 + j0.5 p.u.
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Gauss Two Bus Example, contd
2
2 bus
bus
22
The unknown is the complex load voltage, V .
To determine V we need to know the .
1
5 15
0.02 0.06
5 14.95 5 15
Hence
5 15 5 14.70
( Note - 15 0.05 0.25)
j
j
j j
j j
B j j j
=
+
+
(
=
(
+

= + +
Y
Y
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Gauss Two Bus Example, contd
*
2
2
*
22 1,
2
2
*
2
(0)
2
( ) ( )
2 2
1 S
1 -1 0.5
( 5 15)(1.0 0)
5 14.70
Guess 1.0 0 (this is known as a flat start)
0 1.000 0.000 3 0.9622 0.0556
1 0.9671 0.0568 4 0.9622 0.0556
2 0
n
ik k
k k i
v v
V Y V
Y
V
j
V j
j
V
V
v V v V
j j
j j
= =
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
+
= + Z
|

\ .
= Z
+

.9624 0.0553 j
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Gauss Two Bus Example, contd
2
* *
1 1 11 1 12 2
1
0.9622 0.0556 0.9638 3.3
Once the voltages are known all other values can
be determined, such as the generator powers and the
line flows
S ( ) 1.023 0.239
In actual units P 102.3 MW
V j
V Y V Y V j
= = Z
= + =
=
1
2
2
, Q 23.9 Mvar
The capacitor is supplying V 25 23.2 Mvar
=
=
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Slack Bus
In previous example we specified S
2
and V
1
and
then solved for S
1
and V
2
.
We can not arbitrarily specify S at all buses
because total generation must equal total load +
total losses
We also need an angle reference bus.
To solve these problems we define one bus as the
"slack" bus. This bus has a fixed voltage
magnitude and angle, and a varying real/reactive
power injection.
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Three Types of Power Flow Buses
There are three main types of power flow
buses
Load (PQ) at which P/Q are fixed; iteration solves
for voltage magnitude and angle.
Slack at which the voltage magnitude and angle
are fixed; iteration solves for P/Q injections
Generator (PV) at which P and |V| are fixed;
iteration solves for voltage angle and Q injection
special coding is needed to include PV buses in the
Gauss-Seidel iteration
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Gauss-Seidel Advantages
Each iteration is relatively fast (computational
order is proportional to number of branches +
number of buses in the system
Relatively easy to program

13
Gauss-Seidel Disadvantages
Tends to converge relatively slowly, although
this can be improved with acceleration
Has tendency to miss solutions, particularly on
large systems
Tends to diverge on cases with negative
branch reactances (common with
compensated lines)
Need to program using complex numbers
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Newton-Raphson Algorithm
Newton-Raphson method is a numerical technique for solving
non-linear equations.
The second major power flow solution method is the Newton-
Raphson algorithm.
Key idea behind Newton-Raphson is to use sequential
linearization
General form of problem: Find an x such that
( ) 0 f x =
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Newton-Raphson Method (scalar)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 ( )
2
( )
2
1. For each guess of , , define
-
2. Represent ( ) by a Taylor series about ( )
( )
( ) ( )
1 ( )
higher order terms
2
v
v v
v
v v
v
v
x x
x x x
f x f x
df x
f x f x x
dx
d f x
x
dx
A =
= + A +
+ A +
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Newton-Raphson Method, contd
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
( )
( ) ( )
3. Approximate ( ) by neglecting all terms
except the first two
( )
( ) 0 ( )
4. Use this linear approximation to solve for
( )
( )
5. Solve for a new estim
v
v v
v
v
v v
f x
df x
f x f x x
dx
x
df x
x f x
dx

= ~ + A
A
(
A =
(

( 1) ( ) ( )
ate of x
v v v
x x x
+
= + A
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Newton-Raphson Example
2
1
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 2
( )
( 1) ( ) ( )
( 1) ( ) ( ) 2
( )
Use Newton-Raphson to solve ( ) - 2 0
The equation we must iteratively solve is
( )
( )
1
(( ) - 2)
2
1
(( ) - 2)
2
v
v v
v v
v
v v v
v v v
v
f x x
df x
x f x
dx
x x
x
x x x
x x x
x

+
+
= =
(
A =
(

(
A =
(

= + A
(
=
(

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Newton-Raphson Example, contd
( 1) ( ) ( ) 2
( )
(0)
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3
6
1
(( ) - 2)
2
Guess x 1. Iteratively solving we get
v ( )
0 1 1 0.5
1 1.5 0.25 0.08333
2 1.41667 6.953 10 2.454 10
3 1.41422 6.024 10
v v v
v
v v v
x x x
x
x f x x
+

(
=
(

=
A

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Sequential Linear Approximations
Function is f(x) = x
2
- 2 = 0.
Solutions are points where
f(x) intersects f(x) = 0 axis
At each
iteration the
N-R method
uses a linear
approximation
to determine
the next value
for x
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Newton-Raphson Comments
When close to the solution the error decreases
quite quickly -- method has quadratic
convergence
f(x
(v)
) is known as the mismatch, which we would
like to drive to zero
Stopping criteria is when |f(x
(v)
) | < c
Results are dependent upon the initial guess.
What if we had guessed x
(0)
= 0, or x
(0)
= -1?
NR method is not sensitive to starting solution.

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Multi-Variable Newton-Raphson
1 1
2 2
Next we generalize to the case where is an n-
dimension vector, and ( ) is an n-dimension function
( )
( )
( )
( )
Again define the solution so ( ) 0 and
n n
x f
x f
x f
( (
( (
( (
= =
( (
( (

=
A =
x
f x
x
x
x f x
x
x f x
x x x
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Multi-Variable Case, contd
i
1 1
1 1 1 2
1 2
1
n n
n n 1 2
1 2
n
The Taylor series expansion is written for each f ( )
f ( ) f ( )
f ( ) f ( )
f ( )
higher order terms
f ( ) f ( )
f ( ) f ( )
f ( )
higher order terms
n
n
n
n
x x
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x
x
c c
= + A + A +
c c
c
A +
c
c c
= + A + A +
c c
c
A +
c
x
x x
x x
x
x x
x x
x
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Multi-Variable Case, contd
1 1 1
1 2
1 1
2 2 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
This can be written more compactly in matrix form
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
n
n n n
n
f f f
x x x
f x
f f f
f x
x x x
f
f f f
x x x
c c c
(
(
c c c
( A
(
c c c
(
(
A
(
(
c c c
= +
(
(
(
(

(
c c c
(
c c c
(

x x x
x
x x x
x
f x
x
x x x
higher order terms
n
x
(
(
(
(
(
A

+
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Jacobian Matrix
1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
The n by n matrix of partial derivatives is known
as the Jacobian matrix, ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
n n n
n
f f f
x x x
f f f
x x x
f f f
x x x
c c c
(
(
c c c
(
c c c
(
(
c c c
=
(
(
(
c c c
(
c c c
(

J x
x x x
x x x
J x
x x x
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References
a. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WlQclObEAiA
b. Book: power system engineering/Ngrath &
kothari/1
st
edition, 6.6
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