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What is a Conjunction?

A conjunction links words,

phrases, and clauses.

I ate the pizza and the pasta.
Call the movers when you are
Co-ordinating Conjunctions

• “And," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so,"

or "yet") join individual words,
phrases, and independent clauses.

• Note that “but" and "for" can also

be used as prepositions.
• Lilacs and violets are usually purple.
Here, the co-ordinating conjunction "and"
links two nouns.
• This movie is particularly interesting to
feminist film theorists, for the screenplay
was written by Mae West.
Here, the co-ordinating conjunction "for" is
used to link two independent clauses.
• Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent
most of his youth dancing on rooftops
and swallowing goldfish.
Here the co-ordinating conjunction
"and" links two participle phrases
("dancing on rooftops" and "swallowing
goldfish") which act as adverbs
describing the verb "spends."
Subordinating Conjunctions

• A subordinating conjunction
introduces a dependent clause
and indicates the nature of the
relationship among the
independent clause(s) and the
dependent clause(s).
• The most common subordinating
conjunctions are "after," "although,"
"as," "because," "before," "how,"
"if," "once," "since," "than," "that,"
"though," "till," "until," "when,"
"where," "whether," and "while."
• After she had learned to drive, Alice felt
more independent.
“After" introduces the dependent clause
"After she had learned to drive."
• If the paperwork arrives on time, your
cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.
“If" introduces the dependent clause "If the
paperwork arrives on time."

• Gerald had to begin his thesis

over again when his computer
“When" introduces the
dependent clause "when his
computer crashed."
Correlative Conjunctions

• Correlative conjunctions always

appear in pairs -- you use them to link
equivalent sentence elements. The
most common correlative
conjunctions are "both...and,"
"either...or," "neither...nor,", "not
only...but also," "so...as," and

• Both my grandfather and my father

worked in the steel plant.

In this sentence, the correlative

conjunction "both...and" is used to
link the two noun phrases that act as
the compound subject of the
sentence: "my grandfather" and "my
• Bring either a Jello salad or a
potato scallop.

Here the correlative conjunction

"either...or" links two noun phrases:
"a Jello salad" and "a potato

• Corinne is trying to decide

whether to go to medical school
or to go to law school.
“Whether ... or" links the two
infinitive phrases "to go to medical
school" and "to go to law school."
• The explosion destroyed not only
the school but also the
neighbouring pub.
“Not only ... but also" links the two
noun phrases ("the school" and
"neighbouring pub") which act as
direct objects.
Adverbs as linking words

• The primary consideration in

choosing a connective is
obviously meaning - what is the
logical relation that needs to be
made explicit?
(=despite this fact)

Peter has a bad temper and he is

rather arrogant. Nevertheless, he is
a brilliant engineer and is very
useful to our firm.

• Jane is very fond of cats.

However, she dislikes dogs.

• Anne is fond of cats. Her dislike

of dogs, however, is well known.
Moreover (=in addition)

• The Columbia space shuttle is

cheaper to build than the earlier
type of space-craft. Moreover, it
can be used several times and is
thus cheaper to operate.
Thereby (+ an –ing word)

• When charged with the crime,

the man nodded his head,
thereby admitting his guilt.
• When the traffic lights changed
to red, a taxi stopped suddenly,
thereby causing a chain collision
which involved five vehicles.
Whereas (introducing a
contrast or comparison)

• John always drinks tea whereas

his sister prefers coffee.
• Russia is self-sufficient in oil
whereas the U.S.A. is not.
For example

• If she likes, Jane can take up a

career as, for example, law,
medicine or accountancy.
• If she is good enough, Jane can
prepare for a career. For example,
she can be a doctor, lawyer or
A List of Connectives
broad connective adverbs conjunction
meaning and phrases s

addition also, too, similarly, in and, as, like

addition, even, indeed,
let alone

opposition however, but, or,

nevertheless, on the (al)though,
other hand, in whereas,
contrast, though, while
alternatively, anyway,
yet, in fact, even so
broad connective conjunctions
meaning adverbs and
reinforcing besides, anyway,
after all

explaining for example, for in that

instance, in other
words, that is to
say, i.e., e.g.
broad connective conjunctions
meaning adverbs and
listing first of all, finally, and
lastly, for one
thing ... for
another, in the
first place, to
begin with, next, in
sum, to conclude,
in a nutshell

indicating therefore, because, since,

result consequently, as a as, for, if,
result, so, then unless, now
(that), so (that),
in case,
broad connective conjunctions
meaning adverbs and

indicating then, when, before,

meanwhile, after, since,
later, until, till, while,
afterwards, as, once,
before (that), whenever
since (then),