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By Group 5:
Anurag Patra (NA14013)
Mahrukh Mallich (NA14032)
Nishant Adesara (NA14037)
Sitaram Banda (NA14051)
Varsha Agiwal (Na14061)

Definition of Irrigation
History of Irrigation

Importance of Irrigation in Indian Context

Methods of Field Water Application
Surface Irrigation
Sub Surface Irrigation
Localized Irrigation

Irrigation Scenario in India

Central Government Thrust on Irrigation
Field Reality

Definition of Irrigation
Irrigation is artificial application of water to the land or soil

at the right moment in right volume for the proper growth

of the crops in order to
Get the maximum yields of cultivation
Enable cultivation during periods of inadequate rainfall
Re-vegetate disturbed soils in dry areas
Prevent soil erosion and maintain landscapes
Protect crops against weed growth and frost

History of Irrigation
Irrigation has been an established practice in Agriculture

for over 5000 years from Asia to America

Has been a basis of economic development to many
countries for many centuries
Anthropology evidence points to sophisticated irrigation
techniques reason for flourishing of many civilizations

More than 600 million people still dependent on

Uncertainty of Monsoon rainfall both in time and place.
Irregularity in distribution of rainfall throughout the year.
Excessive rainfall causing flood.
Draught is an annual event in some areas.
India is a land of Rabi Crops. But there is not rainfall in
winter months.
Some soils need more water.
Introduction of H.Y.V seeds and multiple cropping need
water throughout the year.

In this system of field water application, the water is

applied directly to the soil from a channel located at

the upper reach of the field. One of the common
surface irrigation methods is flooding method.
Within the flooding method, there are three ways one

can apply water to the field. They are:

Border Irrigation
Basin Irrigation
Furrow Irrigation

Borders are usually long uniformly graded strips of

land separated by earth bunds (low ridges).The

essential feature of it is to provide an even surface
over which the water can flow down the slope with
a nearly uniform depth

Basins are flat areas of land surrounded by low

bunds. The bunds prevent the water from flowing

to the adjacent fields. The basins are filled to
desired depth and the water is retained until it
infiltrates into the soil.

Furrows are small channels, which carry water down

the land slope between the crop rows. Water infiltrates

into the soil as it moves along the slope. The crop is
usually grown on ridges between the furrows.

A system where water is distributed under low

pressure through a piped network, in a predetermined pattern, and applied as a small
discharge to each plant or adjacent to it.

This technique of irrigation is sub categorized into

the following:
Drip irrigation
Sprinkler system
Centre pivot

Drip (or micro) irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation,

functions as its name suggests. In this system water falls

drop by drop just at the position of roots. This method can
be the most water-efficient method of irrigation, if
managed properly, since evaporation and runoff are

In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to

one or more central locations within the field and

distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or
guns . It is suitable for undulating lands, with poor
water availability, sandy or shallow soils, or where
uniform application of water is desired.

A form of overhead sprinkler irrigation consisting of

several segments of pipe joined together and

supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers
with sprinklers positioned along its length. The
machine moves in a circular pattern and is fed with
water from the pivot point at the centre of the circle.

As suggested by the name, the application of water to

fields in this type of irrigation system is below the
ground surface so that it is supplied directly to the root
zone of the plants.
There may be two ways by which irrigation water may be
applied below ground and these are termed as:
Natural Subsurface Irrigation Method
Artificial Subsurface Irrigation Method

Under favorable conditions of topography and soil

conditions, the water table may be close enough to the

root zone of the field of crops which gets its moisture
due to the upward capillary movement of water from
the water table.

The concept of maintaining a suitable water table just

below the root zone is obtained by providing

perforated pipes laid in a network pattern below the
soil surface at a desired depth.

Ultimate Irrigation Potential 140 Million Hectares

Major and Medium Irrigation - 58.5 million hectare is from

major and medium

Minor Irrigation - 81.5 million hectare (about 64.1 million
hectare from groundwater irrigation and 17.4 million
hectare from surface water).
The widening gap (about 15 %) between irrigation
potential created and that being utilized is a matter of
Inefficient water use in irrigation also leads to
environmental degradation via water logging and induced
Use of Micro-Irrigation Systems like Drip and Sprinkler
Systems need of the hour.

NMMI is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in which 40% of the cost

of the MI system will be borne by the Central Government, 10%

by the State Government
Additional assistance of 10% of the cost of the MI system will be
borne by the Central Government in respect of small and
marginal farmers.
All categories of farmers are eligible to avail assistance under this
Assistance to farmers will be limited to a maximum area of five
ha per beneficiary.
75% of the cost of drip and sprinkler demonstration for a
maximum area of 0.5 ha per demonstration will be borne by the
Central Government.
Assistance will be available for both drip and sprinkler irrigation
for wide spaced as well as close spaced crops.

Irrigation is done manually

Cultivates Rice, Egg Plant, Maize,

Cucumber and Chilies

Income on Rice: INR 10000 per
Cost of Cultivation of Rice: INR
Rs. 5000 per cycle
Farmer goes to city / urban areas
during periods of no cultivation.
Advanced Irrigation Techniques
not viable to the farmer
Needs support of government,
Cooperatives or NGOs to adopt
better practices.