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Título original: A MODIFIED PSO BASED SOLUTION APPROACH FOR ECONOMIC LOAD DISPATCH PROBLEM IN POWER SYSTEM

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Nishant Chaturvedi

CONTENTS

Introduction

Literature Review

Objective

Methodology

Problem Formulation

Implementation

Results & Discussion

Conclusion

Future Scope of Work

References

amount of power with minimum cost.

reactive power are allowed to vary within certain limits, so as

to meet a particular load demand with minimum fuel cost.

This allocation of load are based on some constraints

Equality Constrain

Inequality Constrain

Literature Survey

Pluhacek michal et al (2013) a new approach for chaos drive

different chaotic maps are alternatively used as pseudorandom

number generator and switch over during the run of chaos driven

PSO algorithm.

Rani C. et al (2013) A chotic local search operator is introduced

in the proposed algorithm to avoid premature convergence.

Park Jong-Bae et al (2010) An improved PSO framework

employing chaotic sequence combined with conventional

linearly decreasing inertia weights and adopting a cross over

operation scheme to increase both exploration and exploitation

capability of the PSO.

Literature Survey

Jaini et al (2010) A particle swarm optimization algorithm

propose to solve the economic power dispatch problem.

Tao Zhang et al (2009) A modified tent-map-based chotic PSO

(TCPSO) to solve the ELD problem. More specifically, a novel

dynamic inertia weight factor was incorporated with the

modified hybrid tent-map-based chaotic PSO which balance the

global and local search better.

Literature Survey

Chaturvedi K. T. Et al (2008) A novel self organizing

hierarchical particle swarm optimization ( SOH_PSO) for the

non- convex economic dispatch to handle the problem of

premature convergence.

Araujo Ernesto et al (2008) Particle swarm optimization

approach intertwined with lozi map chaotic sequence to obtain

Takagi- Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model for representing dynaic

behavior are proposed.

Leandro dos Santos Coelho et al (2008) The use of combining

of particle swarm optimization, Gaussian probability distribution

function and chaotic sequence.

Literature Survey

Park Jong- Bae et al (2006) A novel and efficient method for

by integrating the particle swarm optimization with the chaotic

sequences.

Chuanwen J. et al (2005) Suggested a self adaptive chaotic

particle swarm optimization is used to solve the ELD problem in

deregulated environment. Logistic map chaotic sequence to

generate the random number R1, R2 and self- adaptive inertia

weight scale in original PSO to improve the performance.

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of study is to minimize generation cost using partical

swarn optimization (PSO) algorithm for the economic load dispatch (ELD)

problem.

The purpose of the economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is to control the

committed generators output such that the total fuel cost is minimized,

while satisfying the power demand and other physical and operational

constraints.

To integrate PSO method with Chaotic map for solving ELD problem

having generated unit with non smooth cost function and multi-fuel.

To maximize the power generation by proposing a PSO algorithm to

METHODOLOGY

Particle swarm optimization

Proposed by james kennedy & russell

eberhart in 1995

Inspired by social behavior of birds

and fishes

Combines self-experience with social

experience

Population-based optimization

Concept of PSO

Uses a number of particles that constitute a swarm moving

around in the search space looking for the best solution.

Each particle in search space adjusts its flying according to its

own flying experience as well as the flying experience of other

particles.

PSO ALGORITHM

Basic algorithm of PSO

1. Initialize the swarm form the solution space

2. Evaluate the fitness of each particle

3. Update individual and global bests

4. Update velocity and position of each particle

5. Go to step 2, and repeat until termination condition

Vi

k 1

k

Where,

Vi

c1,c2

rand1,rand2

Xik

Pbestik

Gbestk

= Inertia weight factor

= Acceleration Coefficient

= Random number between 0 and 1

= Position of individual i at iteration k

= Best position of individual a until iteration k

= Best position of the group until iteration k

Xi

k 1

X i Vi

k

k 1

(2)

(1)

Start

C1, C2 Particle (P), and Dimension (D)

Initialize particles with random

Position (P) and Velocity vector (V)

Calculate fitness for each Population

Update the Population local best

Update best of local bests as gbest

eq. (1) and Postion using eq. (2)

No

If iteration

Completed

Yes

Stop

CHOTIC THEORY

Chaos: a state of disorder and irregularity.

It describes many physical phenomena with complex behavior

by simple laws.

Dynamical systems: systems that develop in time in a nontrivial manner.

Deterministic chaos: irregular motion generated by nonlinear

dynamical systems whose laws determine the time evolution of a

state of the system from a knowledge of its previous history.

i) Logistic Map

f k . f k 1.1 f k 1

between [0, 4]. Despite the apparent simplicity of the

equation, the solution shows a rich variety of behaviours.

The behaviour of the system represented by above equation

is greatly changed with the change of . The value of

determines whether f stabilizes at a constant size, oscillates

between bounded sequences of sizes, or react chaotically in

an unpredictable pattern. fk-1, is a number between Zero and

One.

Lozi introduced in a short note, a two-dimensional map the

equations and attractors of which resemble those of the

celebrated henon map. Simply, a quadratic term in the

latter is replaced with a piecewise linear contribution in the

former. This allows one to rigorously prove the chaotic

character of some attractors. The lozi map is depicted in fig.

The map equations are given below. The parameters used in

this work are: a=1.7 and b=0.5.

X n 1 1 a | X n | bYn

Yn 1 X n

the region where the orbits remain bounded, the lozi map

may present both regular and chaotic behaviours.

The new proposed algorithm utilizes lozi map for the first

part of the optimization process. When pre-defined number

of iterations is achieved, the lozi map is switched over to

logistic map.

Problem formulation

An objective function expresses the main aim of the model

which is either to be minimized or maximized. It is expressed in

term of design variable and other problem parameter. In present

work the goal is to minimize the generation cost of committed

generating unit i.e three, forty, and ten which are given below

N

FT Fi Pi

i 1

ai Pi bi Pi ci

2

Where,

FT: Total Generating Cost

Fi: Cost Function of ith Generating Unit

ai,bi,ci: Cost Function of Generator i

Pi: Output Power of Generator i

N: Number of Generator

Active power balance equation: for power balance, an

equality constraint should be satisfied. The total generated

power should be the same as the total load demand plus

the total line loss.

n

P P

i 1

load

Ploss

Where

Pload is the total system load. The total

transmission network loss, Ploss is a function of the unit

power outputs that can be represented using B coefficients

as follows:

n

i 1 j 1

i 1

loss is not considered in this research work for simplicity

(i.e., Ploss = 0).

2) Minimum and maximum power limits: power output of

each generator should be within its minimum and maximum

limits. Corresponding inequality constraints for each

generator is.

Pi ,m in Pi Pi ,m ax

Where Pi,min

and Pi,max are the minimum and

maximum output of generator i, respectively.

The generating units with multi valve steam turbine exhibit a

greater variation in the fuel cost function. Since the valve point

result in the ripples, a cost function constraints higher order nonlinearity. Here the sinusoidal functions are thus added to the

quadratic cost function as follows:

Fi Pi ai bi Pi ci Pi | ei sin fi Pi ,min Pi |

2

valve-point effects.

Non-Smooth Cost function with Multi Point Fuel

Since the dispatching unit are practically supplied with multi

fuel sources, each unit should be representing with several

piecewise quadratic function reflecting the effect of fuel type

change. In general, a piecewise quadratic function is used to

represent the input output curve of a generator with multi fuel

and described as.

if Pi min Pi Pi1

a b P c P 2 if Pi1 Pi Pi 2

i 2 i 2 i i 2 i .........

.........

FiPi

.........

2

ain bin Pi cin Pi if Pin 1 Pi Pi m ax

generator i for the p-th power level.

IMPLEMENTATION

Pseudo Code for ELD

Input required power (Pd)

Initialize the coefficients a, b, c, e and f of all generators.

Select the optimization technique

Initialize the value of a_lozi = 1.7, and b_lozi = 0.5;

Provide the upper bound (UB) and lower bound (LB) constrains on generators

Configure the PSO running parameters population size (Psize)

= 100 and total iterations (itermax) = 50

Initialize the values of fk=0.63 and mu ( ) = 4 for logistic map

Initialize the initial position and velocity matrix to zero

For i = 1:pop_size

For j=1:nvars

If iter = = 1

Generate random number for initial positions (Pij) and velocities (Vij)

Check for upper and lower bond and modified accordingly

else

assign lastly calculated Pij and Vij

endif

Endfor

Endfor

Endfor

while (sum(init_positions (i,:)~=Pd))

temp_vij = init_velocity (i,j);

end

update the value of w

If (the technique is standard)

calculate w normally

else

if (the technique is previous)

calculate the next value from logistic map and use it to modify the w

fk = * fkpre * (1-fkpre);

wnew = w* fk ;

else (the technique is proposed)

calculate the next value from logistic map and use it to modify the w

fk = * fkpre * (1-fkpre);

wnew = w * fk ;

else

calculate the next value from lozi map and use it to modify the w

lozi_X = 1 a_lozi * abs (lozi_X_pre) + b_lozi * lozi _Y_pre;

wnew = w * lozi _ X;

end

for i = 1: pop_size

calculate the fitness values for all the population

fit_val(i) = obj_fun (x);

end

G_val = P_val;

G_best = P_best;

check for the Pbest and compare it with previous gbest

end

* rand * (G_best init_positions);

calculate the new velocity and positions for all the population and repeat

FLOW CHART

Start

Take Initialization

Parameters

Define Objective Function

Define Objective Constrains

Set Iter = 1

Generate Initial Population

Evaluate Objective Function

If iter == ter_max

Select Best Solution

End

Test System 1: This system comprises of 3 generating unit and the

input data of 3-generating system are given in Here, the total

demand for the system is set to 850MW.

The standard PSO

8700

8650

8600

8550

Cost

8500

8450

8400

8350

8300

8250

8200

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

400

350

Operating Power

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2

Generator Number

unit using standard PSO

using standard PSO

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO

8.2422e3

8700

8650

8600

8550

Cost

8500

8450

8400

8350

8300

8250

8200

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

400

350

Operating Power

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2

Generator Number

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO 1

8.2416e3

8700

8650

8600

8550

Cost

8500

8450

8400

8350

8300

8250

8200

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

400

350

Operating Power

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2

Generator Number

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO 2

8.2341e3

8700

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

8650

8600

8550

Cost

8500

8450

8400

8350

8300

8250

8200

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

Figure 10 : Comparison of cost minimization vs. iterations for PSO, PSO with chaotic map (PSO 1) and

Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps.

400

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

350

Operating Power

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2

Generator Number

Figure 11: Comparison of optimum operational condition for 3 generator units for

PSO, PSO with chaotic map (PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps.

Figure 12: Result window for comparison of 3 generating unit for PSO, PSO with chaotic map

(PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps.

Table 4: Minimum Operational Cost for 3 generating unit by all Three Techniques

Technique

Minimum cost

PSO

8.2422e3

PSO 1

8.2416e3

PSO 2

8.2341e3

Test System 2: In this case the test system consists of 40generating units and the input data are given. The total

demand is set to 10500 MW.

The standard PSO

1.355

x 10

1.35

1.345

Cost

1.34

1.335

1.33

1.325

1.32

1.315

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

600

500

Operating Power

400

300

200

100

10

15

20

25

30

Generator Number

35

40

unit using standard PSO

45

standard PSO

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO

1.3195e5

1.355

x 10

1.35

1.345

1.34

Cost

1.335

1.33

1.325

1.32

1.315

1.31

1.305

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

600

500

Operating Power

400

300

200

100

10

15

20

25

30

Generator Number

35

40

45

1

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO 1

1.3093e5

5

1.36

x 10

1.35

1.34

Cost

1.33

1.32

1.31

1.3

1.29

1.28

1.27

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

Operating Power

600

500

400

300

200

100

10

15

20

25

30

Generator Number

35

40

45

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO 2

1.2717e5

5

1.36

x 10

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

1.35

1.34

Cost

1.33

1.32

1.31

1.3

1.29

1.28

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

Figure 22 : Comparison of cost minimization vs. iterations for PSO, PSO with chaotic map

(PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps

600

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

500

Operating Power

400

300

200

100

10

15

20

25

30

Generator Number

35

40

45

Figure 23: Comparison of optimum operational condition for 40 generator units for

PSO, PSO with chaotic map (PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps.

Figure 24: Result window for comparison of 40 generating unit for PSO, PSO with chaotic map

(PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps.

Table 8: Minimum Operational Cost for 40 generating unit by all Three Techniques

Technique

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

Minimum cost

1.3017e5

1.2932e5

1.2839e5

system consists of 10-generating units considering multi-fuels

with valve-point effects. The total system demand is set to 2700

MW.

The standard PSO

1000

900

800

Cost

700

600

500

400

300

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

500

450

400

Operating Power

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

5

6

7

8

Generator Number

10

standard PSO

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO

318.4248

1000

900

800

Cost

700

600

500

400

300

200

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

50

500

450

400

Operating Power

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

5

6

7

8

Generator Number

10

Technique

Minimum Cost

PSO 1

294.1963

1000

900

800

Cost

700

600

500

400

300

200

10

15

20

25

30

Iterations

35

40

45

50

350

300

Operating Power

250

200

150

100

50

5

6

7

8

Generator Number

10

Technique

PSO 2

Minimum Cost

239.8838

1000

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

900

800

Cost

700

600

500

400

300

200

10

15

20

25

Iterations

30

35

40

45

Figure 34: Comparison of cost minimization vs. iterations for PSO, PSO with chaotic map

(PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps

50

500

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

450

400

Operating Power

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

5

6

7

Generator Number

10

Figure 35: Comparison of optimum operational condition for 10 generator units for

PSO, PSO with chaotic map (PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps.

PSO, PSO with chaotic map (PSO 1) and Proposed PSO (PSO 2) with 2 chaotic maps.

unit by all Three Techniques

Technique

PSO

PSO 1

PSO 2

Minimum Cost

317.5348

302.1667

247.6402

This work presents an efficient approach for enhancing the

performance of standard PSO algorithm by alternative use of two

different chaotic maps for velocity updation and applied to the ELD

problem and tested for three different systems and objectives. The

simulation results shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm

over the previously proposed single chaotic map based PSO algorithm

and support the idea that switching over of chaotic pseudorandom

number generators in the PSO algorithm improves its performance

and the optimization process.

The results for three different experiments are collected with different

settings and results compared with other methods which show that the

proposed algorithm improves the results by at least 10% for all three

cases. Although the result has improved we can further develop the

algorithm by utilizing multiple maps and optimizing the chaotic maps

parameters however these considerations are leaved for future

enhancements.

REFERENCES

[1] J. Kennedy, The Particle Swarm Optimization: Society Adaptation of Knowledge,

in Proc. 4th IEEE Cong. Evolutionary Computation, pp. 303-308, 1997.

[2] Michal Pluhacek, Roman Senkerik and Ivan Zelinka,Donald Davendra, Chaos PSO

Algorithm Driven Alternately by two Different Chaotic Map an Initial Study,

Congress on Evolutionary Computation Cancun Mexico, IEEE 2013, June 20-23, pp.

2444-2449.

[3]C. Rani, D. P. Kothari, and K. Busawon, Chaotic Self Adaptive Particle Swarm

Approach for Solving Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect.

International Conference on Power Energy and Control, ICPEC IEEE 2013, pp. 405410.

REFERENCES

[4] A. Jaini, I. Musirin, N. Aminudin, M. M. Othman and T. K. A Raman, Particle

Swarm Optimization (PSO) Technique in Economic Power Dispatch Problems The 4th

International Power Engineering and Optimization Conf., Shah Alam, Selangor, IEEE,

Malaysia: 23-24 June 2010.pp. 308-312

[5] Tao Zhang and Cai Jin-Ding, A new Chaotic PSO with Dynamic Inertia Weight for

Economic Dispatch Problem, IEEE, 2009. April 6-7, pp.1-6.

[6] K.T.Chaturvedi, Manjaree Pandit Self-Organizing Hierarchical Particle Swarm

Optimization for Nonconvex Economic Dispatch IEEE transactions on power

system,vol.23,august 2008.

[7] Ernesto Araujo and Leandro dos S. Coelho, Particle Swarm Approaches using

Lozi map Chaotic Sequences to Fuzzy Modelling of an Experimental Thermal-Vacuum

System, Applied Soft Computing, Vol.8 (2008), pp.1354-1364.

REFERENCES

[8] Leandro dos Santos Coelho and Chu-Sheng Lee, Solving Economic Load Dispatch

Problems in Power Systems using Chaotic and Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization

Approaches, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 30 (2008), pp. 297-307.

[9]

Effect International Journal of Innovations in Energy Systems and Power, Vol. 1, no. 1

(November 2006).

[10] Jiang Chuanwen and Etorre Bompard, A Self-Adaptive Chaotic Particle Swarm

Algorithm for short time Hydroelectric System Scheduling in Deregulated

Environment,

Energy

Conservation

Vol.46,Issue.17,Oct.2005,pp.2689-2696.

and

Management,

REFERENCES

[11] Ke Meng, Hong Gang Wang, Zhao Yang Dong and Kit Po Wong, QuantumInspire Particle Swarm Optimization for Valve-Point Economic Load Dispatch,

Transactions on Power systems, IEEE, vol. 25, no. 1, February 2010.

[12] Jong-Bae Park, Yun-Won Jeong, Woo-Nam Lee, Joong-Rin Shin power

engineering society general meeting, 2006 IEEE.

[13] N.Sinha, R. Chakrabarti, and P. K. Chattopadhyay, Evolutionary programming

techniques for economic load dispatch, IEEE Trans. On Evolutionary Computations,

Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 83-94, Feb. 2003.

[14] C.L. Chiang, Improved genetic algorithm for power economic dispatch of units

with valve-point effects and multiple fuels. IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20. no.4, pp.

1690-1699, Nov. 2005.

List of Publications

Nishant Chaturvedi, A. S. Walkey and N. P. Patidar, A Modified PSO Based

Solution Approach for Economic Load Dispatch Problem in Power System.

International Journal of scientific and engineering Research. ISSN : 2229-5518,

Vol. 5, Issue 4,pp. 292-300, April 2014.

Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization technique International Journal of

emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. ISSN: 2250-2459, ISO 9001:

Nishant Chaturvedi and A. S. Walkey, A Noval Approach for Economic Load

Dispatch Problem Based on GA and PSO , International Journal of Engineering

Research and Application. ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 3 (Version 2), March

2014, pp. 24-31.

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