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The Microsoft TCP/IP Protocol Suite

Windows Sockets
Applications

NetBIOS
Applications

Sockets

NetBIOS
NetBIOS over TCP/IP

TCP

ICMP IGMP

LAN Technologies:
Ethernet, Token Ring,
FDDI

TDI

Transport

UDP

IP

Application

Internet
ARP
WAN Technologies:
Serial Lines, Frame Relay,
ATM

Network

Network Interface Technologies


IP Over LAN Technologies

Ethernet
Token ring
ARCnet
FDDI

IP Over WAN Technologies


Serial lines
Packet switched networks

Address Resolution Protocol


(ARP)
Successful Mapping of an IP Address to
a Hardware Address
Address Resolution Is the Function of
ARP
ARP Uses a Local Broadcast to Obtain a
Hardware Address
Address Mappings Are Stored in a
Cache for Future Reference

Resolving a Local IP Address


ping 131.107.7.29
1

ARP Cache
131.107.7.7 08004. . .

ARP Cache
131.107.7.7 08004. . .
131.107.7.28 08004. . .

2
ARP
Broadcast

Hardware Address = 08007. . .

4
IP Address = 131.107.7.28
Hardware Address = 08004. . .

IP Address = 131.107.7.29
Hardware Address = 08007. . .

Resolving a Remote IP Address


ping 131.107.7.29
4
1

ARP Cache
131.107.7.7 08009. . .
131.107.7.1 08006. . .

ARP Cache
131.107.3.7 08004. . .
ARP Cache
ARP
Broadcast for
Router A

131.107.3.1
08005...

131.107.7.1
08006...

3
B

A Router

5
ARP
for Router B

IP Address = 131.107.3.24
Hardware Address = 08004. . .

IP Address = 131.107.7.29
Hardware Address = 08009. . .

Internet Protocol (IP)


Addresses and Routes Packets
Connectionless
No session is established

Nonguaranteed Best Effort Delivery


Reliability Is the Responsibility of
Higher-Layer Protocols and Applications
Fragments and Reassembles Packets

IP on the Router
Decrements the TTL
Fragments Large Packets Into Smaller Packets
Creates a New Header for Each New Packet
Flag
Fragment ID
Fragment offset
Calculates a New Checksum
Obtains the Hardware Address of the Next Router
Forwards the Packet

Ports and Sockets


Windows Sockets
Applications

Application
TFTP
Server

FTP
Server
TCP Ports
20,21

UDP Port
69

Web
Server
TCP Port
80

Web
Browser
TCP Port
1210

Windows Sockets Interface


0 . . . 65536

0 . . . 65536

TCP

Transport

UDP

Internet
IP

Network

Transmission Control Protocol


(TCP)
Connection-oriented
Session is established before exchanging
data

Reliable Delivery
Sequence numbers
Acknowledgments (ACKs)

Byte-Stream Communications
Uses Port Numbers as Endpoints to
Communicate

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)


Connectionless
No session is established

Does Not Guarantee Delivery


No sequence numbers
No acknowledgments

Reliability Is the Responsibility of the


Application
Uses Port Numbers as Endpoints to
Communicate

TCP/IP Utilities
FTP

TFTP

RCP

Telnet

RSH

REXEC

LPR

LPQ

LPD

PING

IPCONFIG

NSLOOKUP

HOSTNAME

NETSTAT

NBTSTAT

ROUTE

TRACERT

ARP

Finger

Microsoft TCP/IP Utilities


Utility
REXEC
RSH
Telnet
RCP
FTP
TFTP
Web Browser

LPD
LPR
LPQ

Function
Run commands on UNIX host
Run commands on UNIX host
Terminal emulation
Bidirectional file transfer
Bidirectional file transfer over TCP
Bidirectional file transfer over UDP
Accesses documents stored on a
World Wide Web server.
Services LPR requests and submits
print jobs to a printer device
Prints to TCP/IP-based network
interface printers on UNIX hosts
Checks print queue status

Security
Password protection
No password protection
User and password authentication
No user authentication
User and password authentication
No user authentication
User and password authentication

User and password authentication


User and password authentication
User and password authentication