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Culture of Respect

Three Levels of Uniqueness in Human Mental


Programming (Hofstede)

Specific to individual

Specific to group
Universal

Inherited and learnt

Learnt
Inherited

Culture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes members of one
group from those of others.
2

Define the Culture


A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of
external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be
considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to
perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems".

Schein, E. H.(2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd ed. San


Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The Google Culture


Its really the people that make Google the kind of company it is. We hire
people who are smart and determined, and we favor ability over
experience. Although Googlers share common goals and visions for the
company, we hail from all walks of life and speak dozens of languages,
reflecting the global audience that we serve. And when not at work,
Googlers pursue interests ranging from cycling to beekeeping, from
frisbee to foxtrot.
We strive to maintain the open culture often associated with startups, in
which everyone is a hands-on contributor and feels comfortable sharing
ideas and opinions. In our weekly all-hands (TGIF) meetingsnot to
mention over email or in the cafeGooglers ask questions directly to
Larry, Sergey and other execs about any number of company issues.
Our offices and cafes are designed to encourage interactions between
Googlers within and across teams, and to spark conversation about
work as well as play.

http://www.google.co.in/about/company/facts/culture/

The Google Culture


1.

Create a FullEngagement Culture that Defines the Organization and


Drives Performance
Minimal DistractionsSo Employees Can Focus on Performing Their Jobs
All are treated equally: strength of idea not designation or tenure matter.
Its an imperative considering that those hired are best available for that
competence set and do not like taking orders. Managers are perceived as
leaders whose job it is to provide encouragement and
support for the
rest of the employees.
The 70-20-10% rule
Punch lines:
Focus on the user and all else will follow.
Its best to do one thing really, really well.
Fast is better than slow.
Democracy on the web works.
You dont need to be at your desk to need an answer.
You can make money without doing evil
There is always more information out there
You can be serious without a suit
Great is not good enough

The Google Culture


2.
Hire people who mesh with the culture

Look at the SAT scores and GPA no matter what the seniority and age

Phone interviews with someone in a similar role. Last 30-40 minutes.

Next step are onsite interviews which test your core


software engineering
skills
including: coding, algorithm development, data structures, design patterns, analytical. Atleast
four interviewers comprising management and colleagues. New hires, called Nooglers,begin their
time at Google with an allday orientation. Speakers come from different departments to talk to
the Nooglers. Nooglers are picked up by their mentors and receive a special escort to their work
areas where they are greeted with welcome balloons and a bag of chocolates. The Google Buddy
(technical person) stops by during the week to ensure each new employee is set up with
computers and to assist with any technical questions or concerns.

The Google Culture


3. Closely held: More voting rights to class B Shares
"Google is not a conventional company. We do not intend to become one.
We assumed when founding Google that if things went well, we would likely go public
some day. But we were always open to staying private, and a number of developments
reduced the pressure to change. We soon were generating cash, removing one
important reason why many companies go public. Requirements for public companies
became more significant in the wake of recent corporate scandals and the resulting
passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We made business progress we were happy with.
Our investors were patient and willing to stay with Google. We have been able to meet
our business needs with our current level of cash.

A number of factors weighed on the other side of the debate. Our growth has reduced
some of the advantages of private ownership. By law, certain private companies must
report as if they were public companies. The deadline imposed by this requirement
accelerated our decision. As a smaller private company, Google kept business
information closely held, and we believe this helped us against competitors. But, as we
grow larger, information becomes more widely known. As a public company, we will of
course provide you with all information required by law, and we will also do our best to
explain our actions. But we will not unnecessarily disclose all of our strengths,
strategies and intentions. We have transferred significant ownership of Google to
employees in return for their efforts in building the business

The Tata Culture


Labour Related Initiatives/Reforms

Introduced by Tata

Enforced by

Labour Act

Group (in year)

Law (in year)

Eight hour working day

1912

1948

Factories Act

Free medical aid

1915

1948

Employees State Insurance Act

Establishment of welfare departments

1917

1948

Factories Act

Schooling facilities for children

1917

Formation of Works Committee

1919

1947

Industrial Disputes Act

Leave with pay

1920

1948

Factories Act

Workers provident fund scheme

1920

1952

Employees State Insurance Act

Workmens accident compensation scheme

1920

1924

Workmens Compensation Act

Technical institute for training of apprentices,

1921

1961

Apprentices Act

Maternity benefits

1928

1946

Bihar Maternity Benefit Act

Profit-sharing

1934

1965

Bonus Act

Retiring gratuity

1937

1972

Payment of Gratuity Act

craftsmen and engineering graduates

Changing the Culture

Founding and Early Growth (tends to be a positive growth force)


Incremental change through general and specific evolution
Insight
Promotion of hybrids (insiders with varying degrees of different assumptions)
within the culture
Transition to Midlife (culture becomes diverse with formed subcultures take
advantage of the diversity)
Founder to second-generation chief executive officer
Systematic promotion from selected subcultures
Inclusion of outsiders (change composition of dominant groups)
Maturity and Potential Decline (becomes dysfunctional)
Scandal and explosion of myths
Turnarounds
Mergers and Acquisitions
Destruction and Rebirth

Changing the Culture

Disconfirmation/Unfreezing (Wake-up call)


Discomforting data (economic, political, social or personal) that show
the organization that some goals are not being met create
disequilibrium
Create survival anxiety or guilt
Create psychological safety-must unlearn something as well as feel
safe in learning something new (and feel that it is achievable)
Need a compelling positive vision, formal training, involvement of the
learner, informal training of groups and teams, practice, positive role
models, support groups, reward and discipline system
Cognitive Restructuring
Learn new concepts and new meanings for old concepts (job
functions, rewards, standards, etc)
Provide role models and training OR develop own solutions
Refreezing
Produce confirming data to stabilize new beliefs and values

Role

Power

Achievement

Low Formalization

Support

Low Centralization

High Centralization

High Formalization

Type of Culture
Power culture: is an organisational culture type that is based on inequality of
access to resources.
Advantages:
Unifies individual effort behind the vision of the leader.
Can move quickly in the market and make rapid internal changes.
Leverages the knowledge, wisdom and talent of the leader.
Can provide direction and certainty
Reduce conflict and confusion in times of emergency
Disadvantages:
People give the boss's wishes the highest priority, even when it interferes
with important work.
People with power break rules with impunity and take special privileges.
Information is a source of personal power and is restricted to friends
and allies.
People are promoted by being loyal to those in power even whenthey are
not especially comp

Type of Culture
Role culture: is an organisational culture type that substitutes a system of
structures and procedures for the naked power of the leader. This type of
culture focuses mainly on job description and specialisation.
Advantages:
Well-designed structures and systems make room for efficient operations
and reduce the time for learning jobs.
Clear lines of authority and responsibility reduce conflict, turf battles,
confusion and indecision.
Clear, fair rules and guidelines protect individuals from exploitation and
abusive use of power.
Structure, routine and predictability provide security and reduce stress.
Disadvantages:
People follow the rules even when these rules get in the way of doing the
work.
It is considered a sin to exceed one's authority or deviate from accepted
procedures.
Jobs are so tightly defined that there is little room to contribute one's
unique talents and abilities.

Type of Culture
Achievement Culture: the aligned culture which lines people up behind a
common vision or purpose.
Advantages:
Unity of efforts toward mutually valued goals.
Reduced need for controls on individuals.
High internal motivation.
Maximum utilization of members' talents.
High self-esteem for organisational members.
Rapid learning and problem solving.
Rapid adaptation to change
Disadvantages:
People believe so much in what they are doing that the end comes to justify
the means.
People become intolerant of personal needs, and they sacrifice family,
social life and health for work.
The group only cooperates internally, which others see as arrogant and
competitive.
Because dissent and criticism are stifled, the group has difficulty correcting
its own errors

Type of Culture
Support Culture: organisational climate that is based on mutual trust
between the individual and the organisation. Often referred to as a personoriented culture.
Advantages:
Good internal communication and integration.
High levels of commitment to decision.
High levels of cooperative, effective group work. High trust between
individuals and the organisation.
Good balance for achievement
Disadvantages:
People may focus on relationships and neglect the work.
Out of kindness difficult personnel decisions may be avoided.
When consensus cannot be reached the group may become indecisive and
lose direction.
Changes may take a long time because of the need to get everyone on
board
People are rewarded in the same way although they might not have
contributed in the same way. This could create frustrations.

Designing an Effective Engagement Strategy, 2005 Corporate Executive Board

The Three-Part High-Engagement Culture Imperative


Most of the top drivers of engagement* rely on a high-engagement culture, which can be
characterized by connection, contribution, and credibility
Top Drivers of Engagement* Relating to High-Engagement Cultures
Connection
Understanding of the connection
between work and [Organizations]
strategy
Manager clearly articulates
[Organizations] goals
Manager identifies and
articulates a long-term vision for
the future

Contribution
Manager demonstrates honesty
and integrity
[Organization] has reputation of
integrity
Manager accepts responsibility for
successes and failures
Manager has a good reputation
within [Organization]
Manager defends direct reports
Manager inspires others
Manager places employee
interests first
Manager appropriately handles
crises
Manager trusts employees to do
their jobs
Manager lets upper management
know of employee effectiveness

Credibility
Understanding ones job importance
to [Organization] success
Manager clearly explains job
importance at onboarding
Manager demonstrates strong
commitment to diversity
Manager sets realistic performance
expectations
Manager puts the right people in the
right roles at the right time at
[Organization]
Manager accurately evaluates
employee potential
Manager respects employees as
individuals
Manager encourages employee
development
Importance of projects at
[Organization] to employees personal
development
Manager provides job freedom

Designing an Effective Engagement Strategy, 2005 Corporate Executive Board