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LEARNING DRAMA

AS PART OF
LITERARY
APPRECIATION
BY

A. A. ISTRI YUDHI PRAMAWATI, S.S., M.Hum

AREA OF DISCUSSION

INTRODUCTION

THE NATURE OF DRAMA


A WORK OF LITERATURE OR A COMPOSITION WHICH DELINEATES
LIFE AND HUMAN ACTIVITY BY PRESENTENTING VARIOUS
ACTIONS OF AND DIALOGUES BETWEEN A GROUP OF
CHARACTERS
THE HISTORY OF DRAMA
- DRAMA IN THE MIDDLE AGES
- 15 TH (FIFTEENTH) CENTURY
- ELIZABETHAN DRAMA
- RESTORATION AND 18 TH (EIGHTEENTH) CENTURY DRAMA
- 19 TH (NINETEENTH) CENTURY DRAMA
- 20 TH (TWENTIETH) CENTURY DRAMA

DEFINING THE PLAY


DRAMATIC STRUCTURE
- CLASSICAL TRAGIC STRUCTURE : RISING
ACTION,CLIMAX,FALLING ACTION, CATASTROPHE
CHARACTERS AND CHARACTERIZATION
LANGUANGE AND RHETORIC

Drama?????

Acting
Script
Art
Actor and actress
Director
Dialogue, Music, Setting, stage
Comedy
Tragedy
Romantic
Thriller
Action
Love story

Key words

Dialogue
Acting
Actor and Actress
Performance
Art
Lighting
Theme
Narration
Character = pelaku, watak, peran, tokoh

Key terms
Drama
Dramatist
Audience

= play
= playwright
= Spectator

Literature and Drama


Two aspects of literary study
(Robert Huntington Fletcher):

Tracing in general way, we can learn about the social


life
Getting some acquaintance with the lives (of the
more important authors)

Literature : Substance
Form

Kind of Literature

Laurence Perrine (literature: structure, sound


and sense)
Pleasure & enjoyment = Escape

Interpretation = Interpretation

Kind of Literature
Escape and Interpretation

Since the invention of language, men have taken pleasure in following and
participating in the imaginary adventures and imaginary experiences of
imaginary people. Enjoyment is the first aim and justification of reading
fiction.
But, unless fiction gives something more than pleasure, it must yield not
only enjoyment but Understanding.
Fiction may be classified into two broad categories :
1. Literature of Escape;
2. Literature of Interpretation
Escape literature is that written purely for entertainment to help us pass
the time agreeably, take us away from the real world and has its only
object pleasure; it enables us temporarily to forget our troubles.
Interpretive Literature is written to broaden and deepen and sharpen our
awareness of life, takes us through the imagination, deeper into the real
world; has its object pleasure plus understanding; it enables us to
understand our troubles.

Kind of Literature
Escape Literature
Interpretive Literature

Prose
Poem
Drama

THE NATURE OF DRAMA

Drama is like prose fiction, utilizes plot and characters develops a theme, arouses emotion
or appeals to humor and may be either escapist or interpretive in its dealings with life.
Like a poetry, it may draw upon all the resources of language, including verse. Much
drama is poetry, but drama has one characteristic peculiar to itself. It is written primarily
to be performed, not read. It normally presents its action:
1. through actors
2. on a stage
3. before an audience
Drama is a work of literature or a composition which delineates life and human activity by
means of presenting various actions of and dialogues between- a group of characters
Drama is designed to be presented on stage. There are a few plays which are basically
designed for reading rather than for theatrical performance and these are referred to as
closet dramas
Drama is also entertainment for it is more than representation of life and characters
through actions and dialogues

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA


Why should we
learn the history of drama?

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

Because we want to know how drama appear as an


entertaining kind and to make the function of drama
clear
Because drama tells the story of someone s life and
his/her characters so that the audience is able to learn
the moral values.
To understand what drama is and to know the first time
when drama is performed.
To know the development of drama since the first time
it was published until today
Because from drama we can learn something regarding
life and its complexities

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA


First of all, the history shows how the instinct
for dramatic representation finds its outlets. It
means that the history records how an idea of a
dramatist is, then, shaped into a great work. It is
interesting to know how the idea is transferred
and meets its fame.

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

Secondly, learning the history is important


because it tells us a great deal about the
workings of the popular imagination. It refers to
the famous titles and names of popular
dramatists. The things behind the fame of all
well-known works and names are a creative
process and the social life of the dramatists.

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

Lastly, the investigation of the history throws


some light on the themes and conventions of
later drama. The various themes may rise from
different views on particular things.

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

When we speak of drama as a genre we must be aware of the different forms


that genre has adopted over several thousand years. William Butler Yeast felt
that drama is the epitome of all the arts
The beginning
It is commenced with religious celebration: out of the various pagan rites and
festivals arose the earliest dramas of an entertaining kind, specifically Greek
Tragedy and Greek Comedy

Greek Tragedy
From the very start GT addressed itself to serious dimensions of life and human
characters, the standards defined by Aristotle in his famous poetics. For him, usually
there was to be a central character with some particular tragic flaw (hamartia). That is a
character is led into despair, death or misery through some sort of error, either in himself
or in his action: the most often cited flaw is hubris, which means excessive, self
destructive pride.
The Basic Idea of Geek Tragedy
- the man learns from suffering
- the experience of suffering often leads into new and enlarged awareness of
both self and existence
- the audience should be purged of both pity and fear by time the tragedy comes to
an end

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

Greek Comedy
Also developed out of early religious celebration specifically from Dionysian
rites of fertility, phallic ceremonies
Divided into: Old comedy, middle comedy, new comedy
- Old comedy
: a great deal of boisterous comment
on affairs of state through political satire.
- Middle comedy has no surviving examples
- New comedy : deals with romantic
situations
Roman Comedy
:
New comedy exemplified by Menander was greatly imitated by the
Roman Comedy writers, in particular by Plautus and Terence

Greek tragedy VS Greek


comedy..

The events
The subject matters
The mood and emotion
The characters

Greek tragedy VS Greek


comedy..
Tragedy

Comedy

The events

Climax in Unhappy
Disaster,

Pleasing and Happy


Resolution

The subject
matters

Dark

Light

The mood/
emotion

Tears/ Somber Pessimism Laugh/ Cheerful Optimism

The characters

Is defeated by the power


out of his control

Solves the problems in


humorous way

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

DRAMA IN THE MIDDLE AGES


15 TH CENTURY
ELIZABETHAN PERIOD
RESTORATION AND 18 TH CENTURY DRAMA
19 TH CENTURY
20 TH CENTURY

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

I. DRAMA IN THE MIDDLE AGES


Medieval drama was established as a secular
entertainment (related to certain church services)
Gradually the presentation were moved from the
church to the outdoors
Religious play based on certain events in biblical history
The story of man and the life of Christ became the
main subject of all medieval drama

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

II. FIFTEENTH (15TH) CENTURY


MORALITY PLAYS AND INTERLUDES
PRESENTED ON STAGE BY ACTORS IN BIZARRE COSTUMES
THE MORALITY PLAYS LED SLOWLY INTO THE CREATION OF
INTERLUDES WHICH WERE RELATIVELY SHORT DRAMAS BRIEF
ENOUGH TO BE PRESENTED IN BETWEEN THE OTHER EVENTS AT
FEASTS, ENTERTAINMENT
THE INTERLUDES WERE EXTREMELY POPULAR AND OFTEN
CONSISTED OF A DIALOGUE BETWEEN ONLY TWO CHARACTERS

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA

III. ELIZABETHAN PERIOD

By the late of sixteenth century, Elizabethan Drama


had become the best in the history of drama
People from various professions begin writing plays
Beginning of new kinds of plays, the romantic
comedies, the revenge and murder drama
The period of unbelievable number of new and talented
playwright
Introduced a whole galaxy of new kinds of secular
drama, many of which survive to the present day

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA


IV. RESTORATION AND 18 TH CENTURY DRAMA

Heroic plays became extremely popular


Heroic drama was a kind of tragedy or tragicomedy
characterized by excesses-violence, explosive, dialogues,
greatly tormented character element of spectacle and
various epic dimensions
The born of comedy of manners which usually
concerned with the manners and customs of very
synthetic or artificial highbrow society

THE HISTORY OF DRAMA


V. Nineteenth (19 th) Century
Melodrama with excessive emotionalism
A revived interest in more serious drama like that of Elizabethan period

VI. Twentieth (20 th) Century


Under the leadership of Irish drama
Problem plays and domestic tragedies
New kind of rebellious drama

Defining the play


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Gesture
Plot
Mimic
Style
Dialogue
Costume
Setting
Delivering story
Acting

Taste
Pronunciation
Intonation
Character
Theme
Duration
Music
Background

Defining the play

The actor
The theme
The characters
The plot
The point of view : 1st person,3rd person,
The content of the story
Kind of story
Setting
The script
Duration
Stage
Costume
Audience
Lighting
Sound system
Place

Defining The Play

The Physical World Of The Play


The Central Theme
Characters
Plot
Sources
Style
Outstanding Features of The Play

Defining The Play


The Physical World Of The Play
It would be futile to enter immediately into a discussion of the play without some
brief explanation of the physical world in which it takes place. This means, first of all,
explaining location (where does the action take place) and what is the length of the play
(the time of day)

The Central Theme


Every play has one dominating idea which we call the theme. This is the ultimate
significance of any drama and that dimension of the artists labor which outlives
entertainment value. In defining the play, one has to delineates the meaning of the play
(what the play is about)

Character
The play has a certain number of characters that is major and minor

Defining The Play


Plot
A brief synopsis of the major action of the drama in question so
that the characters relationships will become clarified by reference to the
main events of the play (what actually happens that shows correlation
between the action and the theme, how does the action translate into
meaning

Sources
It refers to the place where the play story was covered

Defining The Play


Style
Dealing with the language used. The general category of style includes
diction, the use of figurative language, patterns of imagery, rhetorical devices,
emphasis and even logic. Whether the play is written in ornate or plain style, as
well as whether the dialogue is mostly in the vernacular or is formal, is rhymed or
unrhymed.

Outstanding feature of the play


Any aspects of a play which is conspicuous in some sense

dRaMatic StRucTurE
Structure refers to the total organization of a literary
work. It is a summary of the full scheme of plan of the
work. The analysis of structure is twofold:
outlining the way in which the play is put together and why the
playwright chose a particular way of assembling the events of the play
Classical Tragic Structure
One of the most dominating theories of structure is that which classically
pertained to tragedies for a tragedy deals with conflict, ancient, critics,
thought of the plays as tying and untying knots. The structure of the play
divided into four large categories.

Four catagories of classical tragic structure

1.

2.
3.
4.

Rising action
Climax
Falling Action
Catastrophe

(Chistopher Russel Reaske)

Four catagories of classical tragic structure

Rising action
Rising action is the entire first part of the play in which the forces
creating conflict are delineated, enlarged and prepared for some
disaster. It is the introduction or exposition, a short section directly
in the beginning in which we are made acquainted with certain
facts, usually pertaining to event which have occured before the
beginning of the time of the play

Climax
The end of rising action, for it constitutes major turning point in
the play

Four catagories of classical tragic structure

Falling action
It follows climax and usually presents the ways
in which the hero is slowly over powered
Catastrophe
The main action of the play or a logical result of
the rising and falling action

Characters
Character is a fictitious creation and thus the dramatist or novelist may both be judged with
regard to their ability in the art of characterization

Character in action
The different character of one another can be observed closely by the actions presented
We learn a great deal about the characters in a play by closely observing their actions. We
ask, primarily, why a character does what he does and conclude that it must be because he is
a certain kind of person
Character determining plot
The plot develops out the character themselves. The plot with all of its small episodes and
incidents, its complications and simplification is motored by the natures of the characters

NUMBERS OF CHARACTERS
In analyzing drama, one must pay some immediate attention to
the number of characters in the play
Major Character : Active Character
Minor Character : Passive Character

: Central
: Supporting

Major Character : Characters who are developed extensively


and has a large role in the play
Minor Character : Characters who are not fully developed and
only has a small role in the play
Basic Character Role
Protagonist
: The main character in the plot of any drama.
They are considered as a hero or a noble man
Antagonist
: The opponent of protagonist who has unkind
personality and tend to do many destruction

REFERENCES
Reaske. C.R. 1966. How to analyze drama. .:
Monarch Press

Literature : Structure, Sound, and Sense,


Laurence Perrine, 1970 Southern Methodist University
Literature : An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama
XJ Kennedy and Dana Gioia, 2003 Longman
Literature : Life, Language, Literature
Linda Robinson Fellag 1993 Heinle & Heinle
Bell, Roger T. 1991. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. New
York : Longman

Motivation
Motivation
: identifiable motives behind the character. Most plays
have central motives and in general these are the giant human emotions
which motivate most people in real life
The most common motivation of the character in
drama are:
1. Hope for reward
2. Love
3. Fear of failure
4. Religious feeling
5. Revenge
6. Greed
7. Jealousy
The rounded personality : Characters come to us as
complex human personalities with many facets