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# Rigid Body Dynamics

(MENG233)
Instructor:
Dr. Mostafa Ranjbar

1) Statics
-

2) Dynamics
-

F
F
M
x

0
0

## 1. Kinematics: is a study the

geometric aspect of the motion.
2. Kinetics: Analysis of forces that
causing the motion

F
F
M
x

ma x

ma y
I

## A Vector quantity has both magnitude

and direction.
A Scalar quantity has magnitude only.

Scalars (e.g)

Vectors (e.g.)

distance
speed
mass
temperature
pure numbers
time
pressure
area, volume
charge
energy

displacement
velocity
acceleration
force
weight (force)
momentum

Vectors
Can be represented by an arrow (called the
vector).

F
Length of a vector represents its
magnitude.
Symbols for vectors:

2F

Position

## Position : Location of a particle

at any given instant with respect
to the origin

r : Displacement ( Vector )
s : Distance ( Scalar )

## Displacement : defined as the

change in position.
r : Displacement ( 3 km )
s : Distance
( 8 km )
Total length

River

City

My Place
X

3km

QUT

8 km

For straight-line
Distance = Displacement
s
=
r
Ds
Dr

## Vector is direction oriented

Dr positive (left )
Dr negative (right)

Distance

Displacement

## Total length of path

travelled
Must be greater
than (or equal to)
magnitude of
displacement
Only equal if path is
straight
Symbol d

## Refers to the change

in particles position
vector
Direct distance
Shortest distance
between two points
Distance between
Start and End points
as the crow flies
Can be describe with
only one direction
Symbol S
S = X final - X initial

## Average Speed and Average

Velocity

distance d
Average Speed =

time
t
displacement s
Average Velocity =

time
t
Dx x x o
v

t
t

## Velocity : Displacement per unit time

Average velocity :
V = Dr / Dt

Average speed :

## usp sT / Dt (Always positive scalar )

Speed refers to the magnitude of velocity
Average velocity :
uavg = Ds / Dt

Velocity (con.)

Instantaneous velocity :

Dr
V lim
Dt 0 Dt

For straight-line

Dr = Ds

ds
v
dt

dr

dt

## Average Speed and Average Velocity

distance d
Average Speed =

time
t
displaceme nt s
Average Velocity =

time
t
Dx x xo
v

t
t

# Problem
A particle moves along a straight line
such that its position is defined by s =
(t3 3 t2 + 2 ) m. Determine the
velocity of the particle when t = 4 s.
ds
v
3t 2 6t
dt
At t = 4 s, the velocity = 3 (4)2 6(4) = 24 m/s

Acceleration

## Acceleration : The rate of change in

velocity {(m/s)/s}

V
D
V

V
Average acceleration :
aavg

Instantaneous acceleration :

DV
Dt

Dv dv d 2 s
a lim

2
Dt 0 Dt
dt dt

If v > v
If v < v

Acceleration
Deceleration

Problem

A particle moves along a straight line such that its position is defined by
s = (t3 3 t2 + 2 ) m. Determine the acceleration of the particle when t =
4 s.

ds
3t 2 6t
dt

dv
6t 6
dt

At t = 4

## a(4) = 6(4) - 6 = 18 m/s2

Problem

A particle moves along a straight line such that its position is defined by s =
(t3 12 t2 + 36 t -20 ) cm. Describe the motion of P during the time interval
[0,9]

ds
3t 2 24t 36 3(t 2)(t 6)
dt
dv
a
6t 24 6(t 4)
dt

s
v
a

-20
36
-24

12
0
-12

-4
-12
0

-20
0
12

61
63
30

## Total time = 9 seconds

Total distance = (32+32+81)= 145 meter
Displacement = form -20 to 61 = 81 meter
Average Velocity = 81/9= 9 m/s to the right
Speed = 9 m/s
Average speed = 145/9 = 16.1 m/s
Average acceleration = 27/9= 3 m/s2 to the right

## Relation involving s, v, and a

No time t
Position s
Velocity

ds
v
dt

Acceleration a

dv
dt

dt

ds
v

dt

dv
a

a ds v dv

ds dv

v
a

Problem 12.18
A car starts from rest and moves along a straight line with an
acceleration of a = ( 3 s -1/3 ) m/s2. where s is in meters. Determine the
cars acceleration when t = 4 s. (Rest t = 0 , v = 0)

a ds v dv
s

s ds 3 dt

1
3

3s ds vdv
0

0
2

1
3

ds 3 dt
0
2
3

3
s 3t
2

1
3

ds
v
3s
dt

3
1 2
3
(3) s v
2
2

v 3s

1
3

1
3

s (2t )

3
2

a = ac

dv
ac
dt

dv ac dt
v

dv a
vo

dt

v v0 ac t

ds
v
v0 a c t
dt
s

ds (v

so

ac t ) dt

1 2
s s 0 v0 t a c t
2

## Velocity as a Function of Position

v dv ac ds
v

v dv a
v0

ds

s0

1 2 1 2
v v0 ac ( s s0 )
2
2

v v 2 ac ( s s0 )
2

2
0

Summary

## Time dependent acceleration

s (t )
ds
v
dt
2
dv d s
a
2
dt dt

a ds v dv

Constant acceleration

v v0 ac t
1 2
s s 0 v0 t a c t
2

v v 2 ac ( s s0 )
2

2
0

## This applies to a freely falling object:

a g 9.81 m / s 2 32.2 ft / s 2

Thank you