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Rigid Body Dynamics

(MENG233)
Instructor:
Dr. Mostafa Ranjbar

Areas of mechanics (section12.1)


1) Statics
-

Concerned with body at rest.

2) Dynamics
-

F
F
M
x

0
0

Concerned with body in motion

1. Kinematics: is a study the


geometric aspect of the motion.
2. Kinetics: Analysis of forces that
causing the motion

F
F
M
x

ma x

ma y
I

Review of Vectors and Scalars

A Vector quantity has both magnitude


and direction.
A Scalar quantity has magnitude only.

Scalars (e.g)

Vectors (e.g.)

distance
speed
mass
temperature
pure numbers
time
pressure
area, volume
charge
energy

displacement
velocity
acceleration
force
weight (force)
momentum

Vectors
Can be represented by an arrow (called the
vector).

F
Length of a vector represents its
magnitude.
Symbols for vectors:

(e.g. force) F , or F (bold type), or

2F

Position

Position : Location of a particle


at any given instant with respect
to the origin

r : Displacement ( Vector )
s : Distance ( Scalar )

Distance & Displacement

Displacement : defined as the


change in position.
r : Displacement ( 3 km )
s : Distance
( 8 km )
Total length

River

City

My Place
X

3km

QUT

8 km

For straight-line
Distance = Displacement
s
=
r
Ds
Dr

Vector is direction oriented


Dr positive (left )
Dr negative (right)

Distance

Displacement

Total length of path


travelled
Must be greater
than (or equal to)
magnitude of
displacement
Only equal if path is
straight
Symbol d

Refers to the change


in particles position
vector
Direct distance
Shortest distance
between two points
Distance between
Start and End points
as the crow flies
Can be describe with
only one direction
Symbol S
S = X final - X initial

Average Speed and Average


Velocity

distance d
Average Speed =

time
t
displacement s
Average Velocity =

time
t
Dx x x o
v

t
t

Velocity & Speed

Velocity : Displacement per unit time


Average velocity :
V = Dr / Dt

Speed : Distance per unit time


Average speed :

usp sT / Dt (Always positive scalar )


Speed refers to the magnitude of velocity
Average velocity :
uavg = Ds / Dt

Velocity (con.)

Instantaneous velocity :

Dr
V lim
Dt 0 Dt

For straight-line

Dr = Ds

ds
v
dt

dr

dt

Average Speed and Average Velocity


distance d
Average Speed =

time
t
displaceme nt s
Average Velocity =

time
t
Dx x xo
v

t
t

# Problem
A particle moves along a straight line
such that its position is defined by s =
(t3 3 t2 + 2 ) m. Determine the
velocity of the particle when t = 4 s.
ds
v
3t 2 6t
dt
At t = 4 s, the velocity = 3 (4)2 6(4) = 24 m/s

Acceleration

Acceleration : The rate of change in


velocity {(m/s)/s}

V
D
V

V
Average acceleration :
aavg

Instantaneous acceleration :

DV
Dt

Dv dv d 2 s
a lim

2
Dt 0 Dt
dt dt

If v > v
If v < v

Acceleration
Deceleration

Problem

A particle moves along a straight line such that its position is defined by
s = (t3 3 t2 + 2 ) m. Determine the acceleration of the particle when t =
4 s.

ds
3t 2 6t
dt

dv
6t 6
dt

At t = 4

a(4) = 6(4) - 6 = 18 m/s2

Problem

A particle moves along a straight line such that its position is defined by s =
(t3 12 t2 + 36 t -20 ) cm. Describe the motion of P during the time interval
[0,9]

ds
3t 2 24t 36 3(t 2)(t 6)
dt
dv
a
6t 24 6(t 4)
dt

s
v
a

-20
36
-24

12
0
-12

-4
-12
0

-20
0
12

61
63
30

Total time = 9 seconds


Total distance = (32+32+81)= 145 meter
Displacement = form -20 to 61 = 81 meter
Average Velocity = 81/9= 9 m/s to the right
Speed = 9 m/s
Average speed = 145/9 = 16.1 m/s
Average acceleration = 27/9= 3 m/s2 to the right

Relation involving s, v, and a


No time t
Position s
Velocity

ds
v
dt

Acceleration a

dv
dt

dt

ds
v

dt

dv
a

a ds v dv

ds dv

v
a

Problem 12.18
A car starts from rest and moves along a straight line with an
acceleration of a = ( 3 s -1/3 ) m/s2. where s is in meters. Determine the
cars acceleration when t = 4 s. (Rest t = 0 , v = 0)

a ds v dv
s

s ds 3 dt

1
3

3s ds vdv
0

0
2

1
3

ds 3 dt
0
2
3

3
s 3t
2

1
3

ds
v
3s
dt

3
1 2
3
(3) s v
2
2

v 3s

1
3

1
3

s (2t )

3
2

For constant acceleration


a = ac

Velocity as a Function of Time


dv
ac
dt

dv ac dt
v

dv a
vo

dt

v v0 ac t

Position as a Function of Time


ds
v
v0 a c t
dt
s

ds (v

so

ac t ) dt

1 2
s s 0 v0 t a c t
2

Velocity as a Function of Position

v dv ac ds
v

v dv a
v0

ds

s0

1 2 1 2
v v0 ac ( s s0 )
2
2

v v 2 ac ( s s0 )
2

2
0

Summary

Time dependent acceleration

s (t )
ds
v
dt
2
dv d s
a
2
dt dt

a ds v dv

Constant acceleration

v v0 ac t
1 2
s s 0 v0 t a c t
2

v v 2 ac ( s s0 )
2

2
0

This applies to a freely falling object:


a g 9.81 m / s 2 32.2 ft / s 2

Thank you