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• Diffusion is the net movement of
the same kind of molecules from
an area of their higher
concentration to their area of
lower concentration.

• The constant random motion of

molecules is what enables
diffusion to occur.
• Molecules that are initially
unequally distributed in a liquid or
gas tend to move by diffusion
throughout the medium until they
are equally distributed.
• Diffusion is an important means of
distributing materials within cells
of passively moving substances
through cell membranes.
• In this experiment, the conditions
that affect the rate at which
various substances diffuse were
• 6 cubes Sugar beet, strainer,
water bath, 2-500-ml beaker
• 20% gelatin solution,3 test tubes,
test tube rack, ice water, pencil,
methylene blue.
2. 3 cubes of sugar beet were
prepared and steamed for 10
3. Two 500ml beakers were filled
with ¾ of water.
4. 3 steamed and 3 unsteamed
sugar beet were placed in each
4.The set-up was left undisturbed
and was observed after 30
minutes and at the end of the
1. 3 test tubes filled with 10 ml of
20% gelatin were prepared and
placed and placed in ice water for
the gelatin to solidify.
2. Using a pencil, the level of the
solidified gelatin in the test tube
was marked.
3. 5ml of methylene blue was
poured in each test tube to serve
as dye.
4. Each test tube was placed in the
locker (27°C), oven (37°C), and in
the refrigerator (19°C) for 48
Results and Discussion
Figure 1. Sugar beet at the start of the experiment

Unsteamed Steamed

At the start of the experiment, the steamed sugar beet

diffused faster than the unsteamed one covering the thin
bottom part of the beaker.
Figure 2. Sugar beet after 30 minutes

Unsteamed Steamed

After 30 minutes, the steamed sugar beet diffused in

almost 20 ml part of the bottom; also a thick surface of the
water was occupied by the diffused molecules. On the
other hand, the molecules of the unsteamed sugar beet
were occupying the bottom horizontally, and a thin part at
the surface.
Figure 3. Sugar beet at the end of the period

Unsteamed Steamed

At the end of the period, the steamed sugar beet were

diffused in almost 50 ml part of the bottom; the remaining
parts were filled with faint pink coloration. The water with
unsteamed beet was characterized by faint pink coloration
and the concentration at the bottom disappeared.
• Every cell is surrounded by a
selectively permeable
membrane which regulates what
gets into and out of the cell.
Selectively permeable membranes
are membranes which allow some
substances to cross much more
easily than other substances.
• This living membrane is
accountable for the difference in
rate of diffusion of the 2 different
• When you heat a beetroot, you
disrupt the living membranes
which prevents the passage of the
anthocyanin molecules outside the
Table 1. Temperature and Distance Readings

Storage Place Temperature Distance

Readings Traveled by
the dye (cm)
Inside the (19°C) 1.5
Inside the locker (27°C) 2

Inside the oven (37°C) 2.5

• The temperature greatly affects
the rate of diffusion. As the
temperature increases, the rate
of diffusion or the movement of
molecules also increases.
• When leaves
lose water as a
liquid phase
through special
cells called
hydathodes it is
referred to as
• These guttation "tears" appear at
the leaf tips or margins and
contain various salts, sugars and
other organic substances.
• At night, transpiration usually
does not occur because most
plants have their stomata closed.
When there is a high soil moisture
level, water will enter plant roots.
• The water will accumulate in the
plant creating a slight root
pressure. The root pressure forces
some water to exude through
special leaf tip or edge structures,
hydathodes, forming drops. Root
pressure provides the impetus for
this flow, rather than
transpirational pull.
of Pigments
• All living organisms require
energy for their metabolic
processes. The ultimate source of
this energy is the
sun. Photosynthetic organisms,
including plants convert light
energy into the chemical energy
of sugars, which can be used to
power metabolism.
• During photosynthesis,
molecules referred to as
pigments are used to
capture light energy.
• In this experiment, the primary
pigments of green plants were
separated and identified using a
technique called paper
• Papaya leaves, mortar and
pestle, chromatography paper,
test tube with cork, dropper,
paper clip, solution containing a
mixture of 95 parts of petroleum
ether and 5 parts of acetone.
• The extract of the papaya leaves
was gathered by crushing the
lamina in the mortar.
• The test tube was filled with 50
ml of the prepared solution.
• Drops of extract were placed 1cm
above the part of the paper that
touches the solution.
• The paper was hang
using a clip to
ensure that it will
not touch the sides
of the test tube.
• The test tube was
stopped using a
• At the end of the
period, the paper
was secured for
Results and
• The paper shows the 3 main
pigments separated from green
plants using paper chromatography.
• The green part shows 2 types of
chlorophyll- a and b. The top band
of pigments in the separation are
carotenoids called carotenes and
appear yellowish-brown.
• The chlorophyll pigments travels
slower than the carotenoids.