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Baking Ingredients and

their Properties
Flours

What is a FLOUR?

Flour is a finely ground meal or


powdery product obtained from
milling cereal grains, root crops,
starchy vegetables and other
foodstuffs.
It serves as the structural
framework of baked products.

Wheat Kernel
Composition
BRAN
GERM
ENDOSPERM

The 3 parts to a wheat kernel


(sometimes called a wheat berry):
1) The BRAN is the hard outer covering of
the wheat kernel, high in fiber & nutrients.
2) The GERM is the nutrient-rich embryo
that will sprout and grow into a new wheat
plant.
3) The ENDOSPERM is the biggest part
(83%), the "insides" of the kernel - mostly
starch.

Classification of Wheat Flour


1. Whole wheat, stone-ground and graham
flour can be used interchangeably; nutrient values
differ minimally. Either grinding the whole-wheat
kernel or recombining the white flour, germ and
bran that have been separated during milling
produces them. Their only differences may be in
coarseness and protein content. Insoluble fiber
content is higher than in white flours. Whole wheat
flour is more nutritious than white flour.

Classification of Wheat Flour


2. Bread flour is white flour that is a blend of hard,
high-protein wheats and has greater gluten
strength and protein content than all-purpose flour.
Unbleached and in some cases conditioned with
ascorbic acid, bread flour is milled primarily for
commercial bakers, but is available at most grocery
stores. Protein varies from 12 to 14 percent. It has
an off-white color and has a granular texture.

Classification of Wheat Flour


3. All-purpose flour is white flour milled from hard
wheats or a blend of hard and soft wheats. It gives
the best results for many kinds of products,
including some yeast breads, quick breads, cakes,
cookies, pastries and noodles. All-purpose flour is
usually enriched and may be bleached or
unbleached. Bleaching will not affect nutrient value.
Different brands will vary in performance. Protein
varies from 8 to 11 percent.

Classification of Wheat Flour


4. Cake flour is fine-textured, silky flour milled from
soft wheats with low protein content. It is used to
make cakes, cookies, crackers, quick breads and
some types of pastry. Cake flour has a greater
percentage of starch and less protein, which keeps
cakes and pastries tender and delicate. Protein
varies from 7 to 9 percent.

Classification of Wheat Flour


5. Pastry flour has properties intermediate
between those of all-purpose and cake flours. It is
usually milled from soft wheat for pastry-making,
but can be used for cookies, cakes, crackers and
similar products. It differs from hard wheat flour in
that it has a finer texture and lighter consistency.
Protein varies from 8 to 9 percent.

Classification of Wheat Flour


6. Self-rising flour, also referred to as phosphated
flour, is a convenience product made be adding
salt and leavening to all-purpose flour. It is
commonly used in biscuits and quick breads, but is
not recommended for yeast breads. One cup of
self-rising flour contains 1-1/2 teaspoons baking
powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Self-rising can be
substituted for all-purpose flour by reducing salt
and baking powder according to these proportions.

Classification of Wheat Flour


7. Enriched Flour is a white flour with nutrients
added to it.

Classification of Wheat Flour


8. High Gluten flour is usually milled from spring
wheat and has a high protein (40-45 percent), lowstarch content. Gluten flour improves baking quality
and produces high-protein gluten bread. It is used
to bake hard crust breads and special products
such as pizza dough.

Classification of Wheat Flour


9. Bran Flour consists of bran flakes added to
flour. It has either fine or coarse texture.

Classification of Wheat Flour


10. Instant or Quick Mixing Flour processed by
moistening and redripping the flour. It needs no
sifting before use because it blends with liquid
easily.

Uses of Flour
Flour provides bulk structure to baked products
It contributes color, texture and flavor to baked
products.
It improves the nutritive value of food because it
contains protein, riboflavin, iron, niacin and other
minerals.
It is used for various cooking purposes as
thickener, binder, for dredging food and as
stiffening agent in laundry.

Storage of Flour
Flour is best stored in tightly closed container
and kept in a cool, dark pantry or shelf to prevent
it from moisture, dirt and insects.
Flour keeps for two or three months.

_________1. It is known as the family or general purpose flour


with 10-11% protein content. It is used for almost all cooking
purposes but it is inferior to cake flour.
_________2. Classified as soft wheat flour with content of 7-8%
of protein.
_________3. It needed no sifting before use because it blends
with liquid easily.
_________4. It is also called strong or hard flour with 12-14%
protein content. It has an off-white color and has a granular
texture.
_________5. It is a finely ground meal or powdery product
obtained from milling cereal grains, root crops and starchy
vegetables and other foodstuffs. It serves as the structural
framework of baked products.