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PARTS OF SPEECH (3)

E. ADVERB

Adverb is a part of speech comprising


a class of words that modifies, or adds
to the meaning of
A verb (except linking verb)
An adjective
Another adverb
A sentence

An adverb modifies a verb


Fire from bunsen burner heats the
loop quickly
Older people eat slowly
Young children play aggressively
Student must work carefully in the lab
My daughter speaks English fluently
Decrease the temperature
immediately after washing

An adverb modifies an
adjective
The growth is very slow
The city change greatly fast
The food tastes really nice
Our samples are cloudy yellow

An adverb modifies another


adverb

The cooling period is done too slowly

An adverb modifies a
sentence
Unfortunately, we run out of the
chemicals
Suddenly, He switch off the reactor

Previously, a researcher has found the


microbe

An adverb comes from an


adjective
Accurate
Patient
Curious
Careless
Extrem

Accurately
Patiently
Curiously
Carelessly
Extremly

Adverbs:
a. Adverb of manner
She writes slowly and speaks quietly.
b. Adverb of place
I have lived on the island for years.
c. Adverb of frequency
He feeds the animal every day.
They always break their fast with water and dates
d. Adverb of time
We have to stop eating before dawn.
She broke her fast first.
e. Adverb of purpose
She drives her new car carefully to avoid hitting other vehicles.
I try many methods to get the best results.

F. PREPOSITION

Preposition is a word that relates noun or noun


phrase to an adverb, an adjective or other words in
a sentence.

The most common prepositions are:


"about,"
"above,"
"across,"
"after,"
"against,"
"along,"
"among,"
"around,"

"at,"
"before,"
"behind,"
"below,"
"beneath,"
"beside,"
"between,"
"beyond,"
"but,"
"by,"
"despite,"

"down,"
"during,"
"except,"
"for,"
"from,"
"in,"
"inside,"
"into,"
"like,"
"near,"

"of,"
"off,"
"on,"
"onto,"
"out,"
"outside,"
"over,"
"past,"
"since,"
"through,"

"throughout,"
"till,"
"to,"
"toward,"
"under,"
"underneath,"
"until,"
"up,"
"upon,"
"with,"
"within,"
"without."

Examples
The burette is on the table.
The bottle of liquid is beneath the
table.
My house is across the road.
Her lab is beside the main building.
My child can jump over the table.
I fell asleep during lecture.

More Examples

The children climbed the mountain without


fear.
There was rejoicing throughout the land
when the government was defeated.
The spider crawled slowly along the
banister.
The dog is hiding under the porch because
it knows it will be punished for chewing up
a new pair of shoes.
The screenwriter searched for the
manuscript he was certain was somewhere
in his office.

G. CONJUNCTION
Conjunction is word that is used to join
words, phrases, clauses or sentences.
It differs from preposition which relates
the noun or noun phrase to an adverb,
an adjective or other words in a
sentence.

Coordinating conjunction
And is used
a. to suggest that one idea is
chronologically sequential to another
b. to suggest that one idea is the result
of another
c. to suggest that one clause is
dependent upon another
d. to suggest a kind of "comment" on
the first clause.

But is used
a. to suggest a contrast that is
unexpected in light of the first clause
b. to suggest in an affirmative sense
what the first part of the sentence
implied in a negative way
c. to connect two ideas with the
meaning of "with the exception of"
(and then the second word takes
over as subject.

Or is used
a. to suggest that only one possibility can be
realized
b. to suggest the inclusive combination of
alternatives
c. to suggest a negative condition
d. to suggest a negative alternative without
the use of an imperative

Authority used for this section on the uses of and, but, and or: A
University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney
Greenbaum. Longman Group: Essex, England. 1993.

Conjunction differs from preposition


which relates the noun or noun phrase
to an adverb, an adjective or other
words in a sentence.

Notice the difference function of and


and with in these sentences!
Susi and Budi are doing the titration
(a)
Susi, with Budi is doing the titration (b)

The first sentence above (a) actually


joins these sentences:
Susi is doing the titration
Budi is doing the titration
The second sentence above (b) shows
the relation between Susi and Budi. It
informs the reader that When Susi is
doing the titration, Budi is also there.
Please note that Budi is not doing the
titration.

b. Subordinating conjunction
Subordinating Conjunction comes at the beginning of a
subordinate or dependent clause. It shows the relationship
between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence.
For examples:
He decided to take the course as though he had been
preparing for this chance all his life.
Because she owed some money from him, she had to work
in his restaurant for at least a month.
My mother will not go shopping, unless she finds her purse
back.

Other subordinating conjunctions are: after, although, as, as if,


as long as, as though, because, before, even if, even though,
if, if only, in order that, now that, once, rather than, since, so
that, than, that, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever,
where, whereas, wherever, while.

c. Correlative conjunction
Correlative conjunction always appears in
pair and it treats the clause grammatically
equal.
For example:
My brother sells not only groceries but
also electrical.
The teacher said neither pupils in need nor
disabled ones can join the school
Whether you win this game or lose it
doesn't matter as long as you do your best.

H. Interjection
Interjection is a word, a phrase or a
short sentence which can stand alone.
It is used to exclaim, command, or to
express emotion.
When interjection is more forceful, it
usually followed by an exclamation
mark.
However, Interjection is rarely used in
academic writing.

For examples:
Wow, that is incredible!
No, thank you!
Sorry! I cant come to your graduation
ceremony.
Oh dear! You shouldnt have done
this!
Excuse me!
Best regards,

I. Article
Article is word which is used to notify a
noun. There are 2 types of article:
definite article (the) and indefinite
article (a, an).

For examples:
It is a great success that we have
cloned a new cell line. The cells now
are growing well.

I have to prepare samples for my


experiment tomorrow. The samples
are a slice of water melon, an apple, a
banana, an orange, and a slice of
honey dew.