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These tools have a caesium-137 source emitting

gamma rays at 0.662 MeV, a short-spaced and a
long-spaced detector in the same way as the
basic formation density tool.
The detectors are more efficient, and have the
ability to recognize and to count separately
gamma rays which have high energies (hard
gamma rays: 0.25 to 0.662 MeV) and gamma
rays which have low energies (soft gamma rays:
0.04 to 0.0 MeV).

The hard gamma rays are those that are
undergoing Compton scattering.
The count rates of these gamma rays (in the
energy window 0.25 to 0.662 MeV) are used in
the conventional way to measure the formation
The final density value obtained is more
accurate than the basic formation density tool
because the harder gamma rays are less prone
to attenuation by borehole effects,

The soft gamma rays are those that are
undergoing photo-electric absorption.
This effect can be used to provide a
parameter which is dependent upon the
atomic number of the formation, and
therefore immensely useful in lithological

At the radiation source, all gamma rays have a
well defined energy of 0.662 MeV, represented
by the sharp peak.
After travelling through the rock the gamma rays
undergo compton scattering and loose energy,
so the initially sharp peak moves to lower
Each of the gamma rays undergoes a different
number of collisions dependent upon chance,
and hence looses a different amount of energy.

Thus the peak is not only moved to lower
energies, but is also dispersed (becomes wider).
However, some of the most scattered gamma
rays now have energies close to 0.2 MeV
Once below the 0.2 MeV threshold, the gamma
ray can be completely absorbed by the atoms in
the rock.
There is a given probability that this will occur
depending upon whether the soft gamma ray
encounters an electron under the correct

This is called photo-electric absorption, and is
a completely different process from compton
The result is that gamma rays attaining
energies less than 0.2 MeV are eaten away
from the energy distribution.

Different materials have different abilities to
photo-absorb gamma rays.
Count rates measured in the higher energy
window (for hard gamma rays) as a measure of
Compton scattering and hence the electron
density of the material through which the
gamma rays have passed.
This gives information about the density of the
formation in the same way as for the
conventional formation density tool.

The count rate of the soft gamma rays in the
lower energy window is a measure of the
density of the material (how many electrons
there are available to take part in photoabsorption) and the rate of photo-absorption
per electron.
Hence, the number of gamma rays reaching the
detector in the lower energy window depends
upon the effective electron density of the rock
as well as the photo-electric capture crosssection of the material.

The probability that a gamma ray is adsorbed by
the process of photo-electric absorption
depends upon the characteristic cross-section of
the process e.
A specific photo-electric absorption index Pe
Pe = e/KZ = (Z/10)3.6
Volumetric photo-electric absorption index U of
a material describes the likelihood that a
gamma ray will be photo-electrically absorbed
per unit volume of the material.
U = Pee

Photoelectric Absorption Index

Barite : 266.82
Calcite : 5.084 Dolomite: 3.142
Quartz : 1.086; K Felspar : 2.86
Hematite: 21.48; Magnetite: 22.24
Muscovite: 2.40; Biotite : 6.3
Shale : 3.42; Shaly sand : 2.70
Pure water : 0.358; Salt water: 0.807
Oil: 0.119 , Gas (Methane) : 0.095


The higher Pe, the higher the mean atomic
number of the formation.
If there are isolated Pe peaks, this may indicate
local deposits of heavy minerals especially those
containing iron, or radioactive placer deposits
(uranium and thorium).
If there is a general high value for the Pe curve,
this may indicate the presence of igneous or
metamorphic rocks.


The lower Pe, the lower the mean atomic
number of the formation.
Thin bands of low Pe may indicate coal.
The values of Pe and U for the fluids commonly
found in rock are so low compared with the
values for the matrix, that their influence is
The one exception to this is perhaps highly
saturated brines, which may have a significant Pe


The PEF log is therefore sensitive to
differences in the mean atomic number of a
formation without being sensitive to changes
in the porosity and fluid saturation of that
This combination makes the PEF log an
extremely good indicator of lithology.


The tool is physically very similar to the formation
density tool.
It has enhanced detectors, and the distance between
the long spacing and the short spacing detectors has
been decreased.
This decrease has increased the vertical resolution of
the tool and improved its overall counting accuracy.
The accuracy of the density measurement of the
litho-density tool is approximately 0.01 to 0.02 g/cm3,
whereas that of the formation density tool is
approximately 0.02 to 0.03 g/cm3.


The density and PEF measurement from the
litho-density tool have a depth of investigation
of 50 to 60 cm, defined by the distance of the
long spacing detector from the short spacing
The density measurement from the litho-density
tool has a vertical bed resolution of 50 to 60 cm.
The PEF measurement has a slightly better
vertical resolution still.
The litho-density tool cannot be used with
barite muds.

The litho-density log is one of the two most
useful approaches to lithological determination
This is because the tool is simply sensitive only
to the mean atomic number of the formation,
and at the same time is insensitive to changes in
porosity and fluid saturation in the rock.
Hence, the absolute Pe value may often be used
to indicate directly the presence of a given

PEF log can distinguish clearly and
unambiguously between clean sandstones and
clean limestones.
Limestone and anhydrite cannot be
distinguished by the PEF log.
If there is a mixture of two mineralogies, for
example a sandy limestone, a crossplot
technique or a simple mixing rule can be applied
to calculate the relative proportions of the two

Heavy minerals give particularly high PEF and
U values, and can be used to help their
recognition in logs.
There are many heavy minerals which can be
identified in small amounts on the PEF and U
The most common are, siderite, haematite,
pyrite, glauconite and even biotite and
muscovite micas.

Most types of drilling mud will not have a great effect
on the PEF measurements except those containing
When there are fractures, the barite drilling mud will
enter them, and the logged PEF value will saturate.
While the hypothesis has been shown to work, it is
not used in practice, since the barite drilling mud
makes all other judgments from the log invalid.
In practice PEF logs are not used in holes drilled with
barite mud, and fractures are in general preferentially
recognized by image logs.

The aim of this log is to determine the angle
to the horizontal and the azimuth referenced
to magnetic north and geographcal north of
the dip of the planes cut by the well.
These planes can be:bed boundarjes; an open
or closed fracture; an erosional surface;
The planes can be planar, or can correspond to
a convex or concave surface intersecting the

A plane is defined by a minimum of three
points not lying in a straight line.
It should be sufficient, therefore, to know the
coordinates ( X , Y, Z ) of three points in space
to define the plane.
These three points will be the intersection of
three generatrices of the borehole wall with
the plane.

The tool consists of at least three electrodes
mounted on pads in a plane perpendicular to
the axis of the tool and situated at angles of 120
degrees (3-pad tool) or 90 degrees (4-pad tool)
to each other.
The three electrodes each make a resistivity
measurement of the borehole wall.
Because of the size of the electrode and the
current focusing that occurs on each pad the
resistivity measurement is assumed to be a
point measurement at the electrode.

When the tool crosses the boundary between
two formations the corresponding response
change is recorded for each pad at different
depths according to the apparent dip in
relation to the borehole axis.
The relative depth differences for the curves
give the necessary information to evaluate
the dip and the azimuth.
For this we must know

the orientation of the sonde defined by the
azimuth and one of the pads (pad number 1)
This azimuth is the angle formed by the
horizontal projection of the lines
perpendicular to the sonde axis and passing
through pad number 1 and magnetic north;
the borehole deviation and its azimuth
the hole diameter (or more exactly the
distance between the sonde and each pad).

The azimuth of pad 1 with respect to magnetic
north is measured using a compass to which is
fixed the cursor of a potentiometer. The
movement of the compass pointer is reflected in
changes in the potentiometer resistance.
The borehole deviation is measured using a
pendulum linked to a potentiometer whose
resistance varies as a function of the deviation.

The azimuth of the deviation is measured by means
of another pendulum that is continuously aligned in a
vertical plane passing through the low side of the
This pendulum is linked to a circular potentiometer
whose resistance is a function of the angle formed by
the azimuth of the deviation and of the azimuth of
pad number 1 as reference (called the relative
The hole diameter is measured using potentiometers
linked to the sideways movement of the pads.

First dipmeter appeared in 1936.
Towards 1942, Schlumberger introduced to the
market a three pad dipmeter, recording SP
In 1945 the recording of SP curves was
abandoned in favour of small lateral systems.
In 1952, Schlumberger put into service a
continuous dipmeter that allowed the
continuous recording of three parameters: the
deviation and azimuth of the well and the
orientation of electrode number 1.

At the same time there were changes in the pad
First pads of a microlog and then, later, of a
focussed micro-device were used.
The calculation of dips consisted first in
establishing correlations between the three
curves, noting the displacement by
superposition of the curves, and then in
defining the angle and azimuth of the dip
knowing the angle and azimuth of the hole


Since 1967 a four-pad dipmeter has almost totally
replaced the CDM
The sonde is powered and can be opened and closed
at will from the surface.
It has four pads at 90" to each other. This means that
if one pad does not touch the borehole wall because
the hole is ovalized or the hole is deviated (floating
pad) then three pads can still give good logs that
allow the determination of dip planes.
A flux-gate compass and pair of pendulums permit
the subsurface orientation of the dipmeter tool to be

The vertical definition is about 5 mm or 0.2
The quantity of data collected and transmitted
to the surface necessitates the use of an
elaborate Frequency Modulated telemetry
The recording is made simultaneously on film
and magnetic tape. If for some reason the tape
is destroyed or lost, the film can still be used to
give optical correlations.
The recording speed is found 3600 feet per hour.

The dipmeter tools, can detect the very thin
events that are related to sedimentary features.
To explore for a stratigraphic trap, it is necessary
to know its type, internal crossbedding,
direction of sand transport, and probable shape.
The dipmeter provides data on the pattern of
internal structures, direction of transport, and,
in some instances, the direction of thickening of
the depositional body.